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Timeline of Ancient Rome

Kingdom of Rome     Early Republic     Punic Wars     Decline of Republic     Early Empire     Fall of the West     Byzantine Empire    

Kingdom of Rome (753 to 510 B.C.)

Date B.C. Event
753 Rome founded by Romulus and Remus, twin descendants of Aeneas.
715-674 Reign of Numa Pompilius (Updated calendar, established system of worship).
673-642 Reign of Tullus Hostilius (Conquest of Alba).
616-579 Reign of Tarquin the Elder (Built sewer, circus, forum).
579-535 Reign of Servius Tullius (Built Servian Wall, organized classes).
535 Tarquin Superbus murders his father-in-law and assumes the throne.
  —Sibylline Books acquired from a Greek priestess.
  —War with Volscians; besieged city of Gabii.
  —Built Temple of Jupiter on Capitoline Hill.
510 Death of Lucretia. Tarquin Superbus and family exiled from Rome.

Early Republic (510 to 275 B.C.)

Date B.C. Event
510 The last king of Rome, Tarquin Superbus, is expelled; Roman republic is founded.
510-496 Wars against Tarquin and his allies.
508 Horatius repels the army of Lars Porsena at the Battle of Sublican Bridge.
496 Final defeat of Tarquin at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
494 Office of the tribune is established to protect plebian rights.
491 Coriolanus is sent into exile but returns with an army to threaten Rome.
458 Cincinnatus rescues a Roman army caught in a trap.
451 Laws of the twelve tablets created; Virginia is killed to save her from a tyrant.
443 Censorship established.
396 War Against Veii—Romans conquer Veii, the foremost Etruscan city.
390 Battle of Allia, Gauls invade and sack Rome.
343-341 First Samnite War—Etruria and Campania annexed to Rome.
326-304 Second Samnite War—Roman humiliation at Battle of Caudine Forks.
312 Via Appia—famous Roman road started.
312 Aqueduct building project started.
298-290 Third Samnite War—Roman victory at the Battle of Sentium.
280-275 Pyrrhic Wars in southern Italy—First encounter between Greek and Roman armies.
269 First Roman coins minted.

Punic and Macedonian Wars (274 to 146 B.C.)

Date B.C. Event
264-241 First Punic War.
260 —Roman naval victory at Battle of Mylae.
243 —Defeat and Capture of Regulus at Battle of Bagrades.
250 —Regulus defies Carthage and is murdered.
218-201 Second Punic War.
216 —Roman disaster at Battle of Cannae.
212 —Death of Archimedes at the Battle of Syracuse.
209 —Romans conquer Nova Carthago, take control of Carthaginian Spain.
207 —Hasdrubal Barca killed at the Battle of Metaurus River.
202 —Carthage decisively defeated by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama.
214-205 First Macedonian War.
200-196 Second Macedonian War—Roman victory at Battle of Cynoscephalae.
190 Antiochus III of Syria defeated at Magnesia.
168 Third Macedonian War—Roman victory at Battle of Pydna.
149-146 Third Punic War—Carthage destroyed.
146 Rome destroys Corinth, dominates Greece.

Decline of Republic (146 to 44 B.C.)

Date B.C. Event
143-133 Numantine War—Conquest of the interior of Spain.
133-131 Conquest of Hellenistic empires in East.
133-127 Civil unrest due to land reforms of the Gracchi.
111-106 Jugurthine Wars  in Africa.
112–101 Cimbrian War—Romans repel two Germanic tribe that were invading northern Italy.
107-100     Marius elected consul six times, reforms army.
102     Teutone tribe defeated at the Battle of Aix.
101     Cimbri tribe defeated at the Battle of Vercelli.
90-89 Roman Social War—Close allies win rights of Roman citizenship.
88-84 First Mithridatic War—instigates conflict between Marius and Sulla.
88     Marius attempts to take over the army and is exiled from Rome
87     Sulla victorious over Mithridates at the Siege of Athens.
86     Marius returns to Rome, takes vengeance on enemies.
83–82 Civil War of Marius and Sulla:  Sulla returns, overthrows Marians, murders enemies.
74-63 Third Mithridatic War. Lucullus pacifies Asia Minor.
73-71 Spartacus leads a slave revolt
67 Pompey conquers the pirates of the Mediterranean.
63 Cicero puts down the Catiline Conspiracy.
60 Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar form the first triumvirate.
58-51 Gallic War: Caesar conquers all of Gaul
52     Victory over Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia.
49 Caesar crosses the Rubicon and instigates a Civil War between Caesareans and Republicans.
48     Caesar defeats Pompey at Battle of Pharsalia.
48     Caesar puts Cleopatra on throne of Egypt at Battle of Alexandria.
46     Suicide of Cato (the younger) after Republicans are defeated at the Battle of Thapsus.
44 Assassination of Julius Caesar

Early Empire (44 B. C. to 180 A.D.)

Date Event
43 BC Octavius and Antony form the second triumvirate; agree to murder of Cicero.
42 BC Defeat of Republican Army at Battle of Philippi.
31 BC Antony defeated at Battle of Actium.
27 BC Octavius appointed imperator for life: becomes Augustus Caesar.
27 BC Gates of Janus shut. Beginning of Pax Romana.
0 BC Birth of Christ.
11 BC–16 AD Roman Germanic Wars  Germans frustrate Rome's ambition to expand its territories beyond the Rhine.
9 AD     Hermann annihilates Romans at the Battle of Teutoberg Forest.
14 AD Death of Augustus. Begin reign of Tiberius.
31 AD Failed conspiracy of Sejanus, captain of the Praetorian Guard.
33 AD Death of Jesus Christ.
41 AD Assassination of imperial madman, Caligula.
41-54 Reign of Claudius: Romans reconquer Britain.
54-68 Reign of Nero.
61     Revolt of the Britons under Boadicea: Battle of Watling Street.
64     Nero "fiddles" while Rome burns.
68     Nero driven from throne by Praetorian Guards.
69 Year of Four Emperors: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian.
70 Fall of Jerusalem
70-81 Reign of Vespasian and Titus.
79     Destruction of Pompey
80     Dedication of the Coliseum
70-81 Persecution of Christians under Domitian.
98-117 Trajan conquers Dacia
117-138 Hadrian builds wall in Britain at the Scottish border.
138-161 Antoninus Pius exceptionally long and benevolent reign.
161-180 Marcus Aurelius, philosopher emperor, fights the Alemanni.

Fall of the Western Empire (180 to 476 A.D.)

Date Event
180-193 Reign of Commodus, degenerate son of Marcus Aurelius.
193-211 Reign of Septimus Severus.
211-239 Reign of the later Severans: Caracalla, Elagabalus and Alexander.
239 Murder of Alexander Severus—throne usurped by the barbarian Maximinus.
239-284 Military anarchy.
270 War with Zenobia of Palmyra, Queen of Palmyra.
268–378 Romans repel invasion of Alemanni.
306 Constantine proclaimed Augustus by his legions after the death of his father.
312 Constantine gains sole control of west at Battle of Milvian Bridge.
313 Edict of Milan: Christianity is made legal in empire.
324 Constantine becomes sole ruler of entire empire.
325 First Council of Nicaea is held to combat the Arian heresy.
337-361 Empire languishes under warring sons of Constantine.
362 Julian the Apostate tries to restore paganism.
379-395 Theodosius reigns in the east. Fends off usurpers in the west and briefly reunites the empire.
406 Waves of German barbarians cross the Rhine and migrate into Roman territory.
407 The last Roman legion leaves Britain.
410 Alaric the Visigoth invades Rome.
451 Europe saved from Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons.
455 Genseric and his Vandals sack and plunder Rome.
476 Imperial leadership passes to a barbarian king, Odoacer.

Byzantine Empire (476 to 1453 A.D.)

Date Event
455 Genseric and the Vandals Sack Rome 
460 Failed expedition against the Vandals of Africa
476 Fall of the Western Empire in Italy to Odoacer
493 Theodoric reigns in the Ostrogoth Kingdom of Italy
527-565 Reign of Justinian in the Eastern Roman Empire
533     Belisarius reconquers Vandal kingdom of Africa
538     Belisarius besieges Ravenna;  regains Italy for Eastern Kingdom
620 Heraclius becomes Emperor. Byzantine Empire administered in Greek, not Roman.
636 Most of Syria Lost to the Moslems at the Battle of Yermuk. 
694 North Africa lost to the Moslems at the Battle of Utica. 

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