Decline of Ottoman Empire

1687 to 1739
Ottomans retreat from some of their European holdings in the Balkans.

Noteable Battles

1620  
Battle of Jassy (Ottomans vs. Poland ) Turks victory
Fought September 20, 1620, between the Poles under Gratiani, and the Turks, under Osman II. The Poles were completely defeated.
  
1622  
Battle of Kotzim (Ottomans vs. Poland ) Poles victory
Fought September 22, 1622, between the Poles, 60,000 strong, under Chodkiewicz, and the Turks, 300,000 in number, under Osman II. Chodkiewicz, old and worn out by fatigue, was forced to retire to his tent in the middle of the battle, and on his death-bed handed over the command to Labomirski, by whom the Turks were totally routed, with a loss of 30,000 men.
  
1644  
Siege of Canea (Candian War ) Venetians victory
This place was besieged June 24, 1644, by 50,000 Turks under Jussuf, the Capitan Pasha, and defended by a small force of Venetians and Canadians, who held out until August 22, repulsing numerous assaults, which cost the Turks 20,000 men.
  
1648  
Siege of Candia (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Turks victory
Siege was laid to this place by the Turks under Jussuf, the Capitan Pasha, in 1648, and was defended by a small garrison of Venetians, under Luigi Moncenigo. So vigorous was the defense that the Turks lost 20,000 men in the first six months of the siege. The siege lasted over twenty years, the place being from time to time revictualled and reinforced by the Venetians and the French, but it was finally surrendered by Morosini, September 27, 1669.
  
1660  
Battle of Klausenburg (Ottomans vs. Russia ) Turks victory
Fought May, 1660, between the Turks, under the Grand Vizier, Mahomet Koprili, and the Transylvanians, under the Voivode, George Ragotski II. The Turks gained a complete victory, Ragotski being mortally wounded.
  
1663  
Battle of Parkany (Ottomans vs. Magyars ) Turks victory
Fought August, 1663, between 200,000 Turks, under the Grand Vizier, Achmet Köprili Pasha, and the Hungarians, in far smaller force, under Count Forgacz. The Hungarians were defeated, and driven into Neuhausel, which town, after a valiant resistance of six weeks, capitulated September 24.
  
1664  
Battle of St. Gothard (Ottomans vs. Poland ) Germans&French victory
Fought August 1, 1664, between 100,000 Turks, under Achmet Kopriali Pasha, and 60,000 French and Germans, under Montecucculi, who occupied a strong position behind the Raab. On the Turks advancing to the attack, a young Turk rode out, and challenged a Christian to single combat. The challenge was accepted by the Chevalier de Lorraine, who killed his adversary. The Turks then assaulted Montecucculi's entrenchment, but could make no impression, and after hard fighting were beaten off with a loss of 8,000 killed.
  
1667  
Battle of Podhajce (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought 1667, between 10,000 Poles, under John Sobieski, and 80,000 Cossacks and Tartars who were besieging Kaminiec. The Cossacks were totally routed and forced to evacuate Poland.
  
1673  
Battle of Kotzim (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought November 11, 1673, between 40,000 Poles and Lithuanians, under John Sobieski, and 80,000 Turks, under Hussein Pasha. The Turks occupied a strongly entrenched position, which was stormed by the Poles, and the Turks driven into the river, losing over 40,000 killed. In consequence of this signal victory, Kotzim capitulated, and Caplan Pasha, who was approaching with a large army, recrossed the frontier.
  
1676  
Siege of Zurakow (Siege of Vienna ) Poles victory
In 1676, John Sobieski, with 10,000 Poles, was besieged by 200,000 Turks and Tartars, under Ibrahim Pasha (Shahan). Having 63 guns, Sobieski made a sturdy defense, and by constant sorties inflicted enormous loss on the besiegers. At last, being unable to make any impression on the defense, and finding his army wasting away, Ibrahim consented to treat, and withdrew his forces from Polish territory. The Turks lost enormous numbers during the siege; the Poles lost 3,000.
  
1676  
Battle of Zlotsow (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought 1676, between the Poles, under John Sobieski, and 20,000 Turks and Tartars, under Mohammed IV. The Turks were signally defeated.
  
1676  
Battle of Soczawa (Polish Turk 1672 ) Poles victory
Fought 1676, between the Poles, under John Sobieski and the Turks, under Mohammed IV. The Poles, who had been reinforced by the Lithuanians, under Paz, totally routed the Turks, who were greatly superior in numbers, and drove them in confusion into Kaminiec, with the exception of which fortress, the whole of Poland was thus freed from the Ottoman invaders.
  
1683  
Battle of Vienna   Poles victory
Fought September 12, 1683, between 300,000 Turks, under Kara Mustapha Pasha, and 70,000 Christians, under John Sobieski. The Turks were besieging Vienna, and Sobieski marched to its relief, with 30,000, bringing up the available forces to 70,000, of which he was given the command. With this army he attacked the Turkish lines, and after a sanguinary engagement, lasting throughout the day, routed the Turks with enormous loss. Six Pashas were killed, and Mustapha only escaped capture by a precipitate flight.
  
1687  
Battle of Mohacz (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
On the battlefield where 160 years previously Solyman had gained so decisive a victory, the Austrians and Hungarians signally defeated the Turks, under Mohammed IV, in 1687. In consequence of this disaster, following upon a long series of reverses, Mohammed was deposed by the discontented soldiery.
  
1691  
Battle of Salankemen (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought August 19, 1691, between 100,000 Turks, under the Grand Vizier, Mustapha Kopriali Pasha, and 45,000 Imperialists, under the Margrave Louis. The Turks were signally defeated and Kopriali slain.
  
1696  
Battle of Bega (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Turks victory
Fought 1696, between the Turks, under Mustapha II, and the Imperialists, when the Turks gained a complete victory.
  
1697  
Battle of Zenta (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought September 11, 1697, between the Austrians, under Prince Eugene, and the Turks, under Elwas Mohammed, the Grand Vizier. Eugene attacked the Turkish army as it was crossing a temporary bridge over the Theiss, and the cavalry being already across, cut it in two, and completely routed the infantry, driving them into the river. The Turks lost 29,000 men. The Austrians 500 only.
  
1716  
Battle of Peterwaradin (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought August 5, 1716, when Prince Eugene, with 80,000 Imperialists, mostly veterans from the Flanders campaign, signally defeated 150,000 Turks under Darnad Ali Pasha. The Turks lost 30,000 killed, 50 standards and 250 guns. The Imperialists lost about 3,000.
  
1717  
Battle of Belgrade (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought August 16, 1717, between 40,000 Austrians under Prince Eugene, and 180,000 Turks under the Grand Vizier, Ibrahim Pasha. The Turks were entrenched in and around Belgrade, and were attacked by Eugene at night. His right wing lost touch and were in danger of being overwhelmed, but was rescued by the Prince. The main attack was completely successful, and the Turks were driven out of their positions with a loss of 20,000 killed and wounded, and 166 guns. The Austrians lost almost as heavily, among those who fell being Marshal Hauben.
  
1737  
Siege of Oczakov (Polish Turk 1667 ) Russians victory
This fortress, defended by 10,000 Turks and Bosnians, was besieged 1737, by the Russians, under Count Münnich, and after the magazine had been blown up was stormed by the besiegers, and the garrison cut to pieces. In 1788 the place was again besieged by the Russians, under Potemkin, and after a strenuous resistance of six months, was taken by storm, December 17. In the massacre which followed, 40,000 of the garrison and inhabitants were put to the sword.
  
1738  
Battle of Kronia (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought 1738, between the Imperialists under Counts Wallis and Neipperg, and the Turks. The latter were defeated, but at very heavy cost, and the Imperial army was so weakened that it was unable to prevent the Turks capturing Semendaia, Orsova, and other important fortresses.
  
1739  
Battle of Grozka (Ottomans vs. Magyars ) Turks victory
Fought 1739, between the Austrians, under Count Neipperg, and the Turks, under the Grand Vizier. The Austrians were defeated, with heavy loss.
  
1739  
Battle of Krotzka (Ottomans vs. Austria ) Austrians victory
Fought July 23, 1739, between 56,000 Austrians, under Count Wallis, and over 100,000 Turks, under El Hadj Mohammed Pasha. The Austrian vanguard was attacked by the Turks when approaching Kotzin and driven back, but the main body withstood the Turkish onslaught from 5 a.m. to sunset, when Wallis retired, with a loss of 5,700 killed and 4,500 wounded, including 9 generals. The Turkish loss is unknown, but was very heavy.
  
1739  
Battle of Stavrichani (Ottomans vs.Russia ) Russians victory
Fought August 28, 1739, between 30,000 Russians, under General Münnich, and the Turkish army, under Veli Pasha. The Russians stormed the Turkish entrenched camp, driving the Turks headlong into the Danube, where thousands perished, and capturing all their guns and baggage. Münnich followed up this success by the capture of Choczin.
  

Story Links
Book Links
Downfall of Turkish Power  in  Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey  by  Charles F. Horne
 in  Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey  by  Charles F. Horne
Siege of Vienna by the Turks  in  The Awakening of Europe  by  M. B. Synge


Image Links


Starhemberg, the defender of Vienna
 in Famous Men of Modern Times

Relief of Vienna
 in Famous Men of Modern Times

Loss of the Moslem standards at Cerestes
 in Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey

The Austrian charge at St. Gotthard
 in Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey

The recovery of Buda
 in Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey

Prince Eugene at Belgrade
 in Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey

The Hero of Zenta.
 in  Prince Eugene, the Noble Knight

Prince Eugene at Belgrade
 in  Prince Eugene, the Noble Knight