Wars of the Guelfs and Ghibellines

1260 to 1289
Civil wars in Italy and Germany between those who backed the popes' right to appoint bishops and those who backed the Emperors.

Noteable Battles

Battle of Legnano   Lombards victory
Fought May 29, 1176, between the Lombard League, aided by Venice and the Pope, and the Imperialists, under Frederick Barbarossa. Frederick was utterly routed, and fled from Italy in disguise.
Battle of Corte Nuova   Ghibellines victory
Fought 1237, between the Imperialists under Frederick II, and the Lombard Guelfs under the leadership of the Milanese. Frederick won a signal victory, capturing the carroccio of Milan.
Battle of Monte Aperto   Ghibellines victory
Fought September 4, 1260, between the Florentine Guelfs, and the Ghibellines, who had been driven from the city, under Manfred of Sicily. The Guelfs were totally routed, and the victors took possession of Florence, and re-established their rule.
Battle of Tagliacozzo   Guelfs victory
Fought 1268, between the Guelf party, under Charles of Anjou, the usurper of the throne of Naples, and the Ghibellines, under Conradin, the rightful heir, and Frederick, Duke of Austria. The Ghibellines were utterly routed, and their leaders, including Conradin and the Duke, captured and beheaded.
Battle of Campaldino   Guelfs victory
Fought June 11, 1289, between the Guelfs of Florence and the Ghibellines who had been expelled from the city. The latter were utterly routed, and this defeat put an end to their power in Florence. The battle is notable for the presence of Dante in the ranks of the victors.
Battle of Alto Pascio   Ghibellines victory
Fought 1325, between the Ghibellines under Castruccio Castracane of Lucca, and the Florentine Guelfs. The Florentines were defeated with heavy loss, among the trophies taken by Castracane being the carroccio of Florence.

Story Links
Book Links
Henry the Emperor  in  Stories from German History  by   Florence Aston

Image Links

In vain they sought his dead body among the slain
 in The History of Germany