Crusades

1047 to 1291
Battles between Christians and Turks for control of the Holy Lands.

Noteable Battles

1097  
Siege of Nicaea (First ) Christians victory
This city was besieged by the Crusaders, under Godefroi de Bouillon, May 14, 1097. The Saracens were greatly aided in the defense by the possession of Lake Ascanius, but with great labour the crusaders transported boats from the sea to the lake, and thus completed the investment of the place. Two determined attempts to relieve it were made by the Sultan Soliman, but both were repulsed, and Nicaea surrendered June 20.
  
1097  
Siege of Antioch (First ) Christians victory
The city was besieged, October 21, 1097, by the Crusaders under Godefroi de Bouillon, and defended by a Saracen garrison under Baghasian. The siege was unskillfully conducted, and provisions and munitions ran short in the Christian camp, with the result that the place held out till June 3, 1098, when it was taken by stratagem. An indiscriminate massacre followed, in which l0,000 of the defenders perished. On the 28th of the same month the Crusading army was attacked outside Antioch by a force of Saracens under Kirboga. Kirboga concentrated his attack against one wing of the Christians, and outflanked it, but was then assailed by the main body, and driven off with heavy loss.
  
1097  
Battle of Dorylaeum (First ) Christians victory
Fought July 1097, between 70,000 Crusaders under Bohemond and Raymond of Thoulouse, and 250,000 Saracens under the Sultan Soliman. The Saracens drove back Bohemond's division on their camp, which they proceeded to plunder, and, while so engaged, were attacked by Raymond and totally routed with a loss of 30,000. The Crusaders lost 4,000.
  
1099  
Battle of Ascalon (First ) Christians victory
Fought August 19, 1099, between the Crusaders under Godefroi de Bouillon, and the Saracens under Kilidj Arslan. The Crusaders gained a signal victory, and for a time the Moslem resistance to the Christian occupation of the Holy Land came to an end.
  
1099  
Siege of Jerusalem (First ) Christians victory
The Crusaders, under Godefroi de Bouillon, laid siege to the city, June 7, 1099, and on July 15, it was taken by assault, and for three days was the scene of a promiscuous massacre, in which 70,000 Moslems perished.
  
1177  
Battle of Ramla (Turkish Wars ) Christians victory
Fought 1177, between the Saracens, under Saladin, and the Christians of Jerusalem, under Renaud de Châtillon. The Christians won a complete victory.
  
1187  
Siege of Jerusalem (Turkish Wars ) Saracens victory
On October 2, 1187, the Holy City was besieged by the Saracens, under Saladin, and after a siege lasting fourteen days, in the course of which several determined sorties were repulsed, the Moslems forced an entrance, and Guy de Lusignan, the last King of Jerusalem, surrendered. The Christians were given forty days to evacuate the city.
  
1187  
Battle of Tiberias. (Third ) Saracens victory
Fought July 4, 1187, between the Saracens, under Saladin, and the Christians of Jerusalem, under Guy de Lusignan. Saladin gained a signal victory, capturing the King, the Grand Master of the Templars, and the Marquis de Montferrat. Following up his success, Saladin recovered in succession, Acre, Jaffa, and other important places, and in the month of October of the same year, recaptured Jerusalem.
  
1189  
Siege of Acre (Third ) Christians victory
Siege was laid to this city by the Christians in August, 1189, and it was obstinately defended by the Saracens for two years, during which the Crusaders are said to have lost 120,000 men. In June, 1191, the besiegers were reinforced by an English army under Richard Coeur de Lion, and in the following month the garrison surrendered.
  
1192  
Battle of Arsouf (Third ) Christians victory
Fought 1192, between the English Crusaders under Richard Coeur de Lion, and the Saracens, 300,000 strong under Saladin. The Saracens made a desperate onslaught on the English, and both their wings gave way, but the centre under the king stood firm and finally drove back the Moslems in great disorder, with a loss of 40,000 men.
  
1203  
Siege of Constantinople (Fourth ) Crusaders victory
The city was besieged July 7, 1203, by the French and Venetian Crusaders under Count Thibaut de Champagne. After a feeble defense, it was surrendered July 18, by the Usurper, Alexius, and occupied by the Crusaders, who restored Isaac Angelus to the throne, and withdrew.

In January 1204 the Crusaders again laid siege to Constantinople, and at the end of three months, in the course of which Isaac Angelus died, and Mourzoufle assumed the purple, they stormed and pillaged the city. Baldwin was then proclaimed first Latin Emperor of the Fast.
  
1213  
Battle of Muret (Albigensian ) Catholics victory
Fought 1213, between the Catholics, under Simon de Montfort, and the Albigenses, under the Count of Thoulouse, aided by Pedro II of Aragon. The Albigenses were routed, and this defeat put an end to their organized resistance. Pedro fell in the battle.
  
1249  
Battle of Mensourah (Fifth ) Saracens victory
Fought 1249, between the French, under Louis IX, and the Moslems. The town of Mensourah was seized by the Comte d' Artois, but being surrounded, he and the knights with him were killed. The king meanwhile had seized the Saracen camp, but was unable to hold his ground, and was driven back to Damietta. In the course of his retreat, however, he was surrounded and taken prisoner by the Saracens, with his whole army.
  
1270  
Siege of Tunis (Ninth ) Saracens victory
This city was besieged by the French Crusaders, under Louis IX in 1270. While before the walls of the place, which offered an obstinate resistance, Louis died of a fever, and the crusaders at once raised the siege and retired.
  
1291  
Siege of Acre (Turkish Wars ) Saracens victory
The city remained in the hands of the Christians till 1291, when it was captured by the Moslems under Malek al Aschraf, Sultan of Egypt. The last stronghold in the Holy Land thus passed out of the keeping of the Christians.
  
1307  
Battle of Cephisus (Catalan Mercenary War ) Catalans victory
Fought 1307 between the Catalan "Great Band," 9,500 strong, and the troops of Walter de Brienne, Duke of Athens, 15,000 in number. The Catalans surrounded their camp with an artificial inundation, into which the Duke's cavalry rode unsuspectingly, and were cut to pieces, de Brienne being amongst the slain.
  

Story Links
Book Links
Preparations for the Crusade  in  Richard I  by  Jacob Abbott
Campaign in Cyprus  in  Richard I  by  Jacob Abbott
Arrival at Acre  in  Richard I  by  Jacob Abbott
Progress of the Crusade  in  Richard I  by  Jacob Abbott
Battle of Jaffa  in  Richard I  by  Jacob Abbott
Baldwin of Jerusalem  in  Historic Boys  by  E. S. Brooks
Richard the Lion-Heart  in  Cambridge Historical Reader—Primary  by  Cambridge Press
First Crusade  in  The Crusaders  by  Alfred J. Church
Besieging of Antioch  in  The Crusaders  by  Alfred J. Church
Besieging and Taking of Jerusalem  in  The Crusaders  by  Alfred J. Church
Siege of Acre  in  The Crusaders  by  Alfred J. Church
Battle of Arsuf  in  The Crusaders  by  Alfred J. Church
King Richard's Crusade  in  Stories from English History  by  Alfred J. Church
St. Louis the Ninth, King of France in  Stories from French History  by  Lena Dalkeith
Peter the Hermit  in  Old Time Tales  by  Lawton B. Evans
The Meeting of Richard and Saladin  in  Old Time Tales  by  Lawton B. Evans
House of Capet  in  France: Peeps at History  by  John Finnemore
First Crusade  in  The Story of Old France  by  H. A. Guerber
Second Crusade  in  The Story of Old France  by  H. A. Guerber
Sixth Crusade  in  The Story of Old France  by  H. A. Guerber
Reign of Louis IX  in  The Story of Old France  by  H. A. Guerber
Peter the Hermit  in  Famous Men of the Middle Ages  by  John H. Haaren
Louis the Ninth  in  Famous Men of the Middle Ages  by  John H. Haaren
Richard the Lion-Hearted and the Crusades  in  The Story of England  by  Samuel B. Harding
First Crusade  in  The Story of the Middle Ages  by  Samuel B. Harding
Later Crusades  in  The Story of the Middle Ages  by  Samuel B. Harding
How Peter Preached of Jerusalem  in  Stories from the Crusades  by  Janet Harvey Kelman
How Tancred Fought under the Banner of the Cross  in  Stories from the Crusades  by  Janet Harvey Kelman
How the Kings Fought for Glory and not for Christ in  Stories from the Crusades  by  Janet Harvey Kelman
How Frederick Came to His Kingdom  in  Stories from the Crusades  by  Janet Harvey Kelman
How Louis Thought Death a Little Thing  in  Stories from the Crusades  by  Janet Harvey Kelman
Richard the Crusader  in  Barbarian and Noble  by  Marion Florence Lansing
Godfrey, A Knight of the Crusades in  Page, Esquire, and Knight  by  Marion Florence Lansing
Order of St. George  in  Page, Esquire, and Knight  by  Marion Florence Lansing
Richard the Lion-Hearted  in  Heroes Every Child Should Know  by  H. W. Mabie
Saint Louis  in  Heroes Every Child Should Know  by  H. W. Mabie
Peter the Hermit  in  The Story of France  by  Mary Macgregor
Second Crusade  in  The Story of France  by  Mary Macgregor
Story of Richard Coeur de Lion  in  Our Island Story  by  H. E. Marshall
Crusades: The Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem  in  The Story of Europe  by  Henrietta Elizabeth Marshall
Crusades: The Latin Empire of Constantinople  in  The Story of Europe  by  Henrietta Elizabeth Marshall
Peter the Hermit  in  Historical Tales: French  by  Charles Morris
First Crusade  in  The Discovery of New Worlds  by  M. B. Synge
Third Crusade  in  The Discovery of New Worlds  by  M. B. Synge
Peter the Hermit Leads the First Crusade  in  European Hero Stories  by  Eva March Tappan
Richard the Lion-Hearted Leads the Third Crusade  in  European Hero Stories  by  Eva March Tappan
Children's Crusade  in  European Hero Stories  by  Eva March Tappan
Siege of Antioch  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Holy City is Won  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Bernard of Clairvaux and the Second Crusade  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Loss of Jerusalem  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Story of the Third Crusade  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Story of Richard Lion-Heart  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Story of the Latin Empire of Constantinople  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Story of the Children's Crusade  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Emperor Fredrick and the Sixth Crusade  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Story of the Seventh Crusade  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Crusade of St. Louis  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton
Story of the Fall of Acre  in  The Story of the Crusades  by  by E. M. Wilmot-Butxton


Image Links


A Battering Ram at Acre
 in Richard I

The Ramparts of Acre
 in Richard I

The Assault.
 in Richard I

Throwing Shells
 in Richard I

Saladin's Present
 in Richard I

Richard fighting in the Holy Land
 in Cambridge Historical Reader—Primary

Richard Coeur de Lion assailed by a troop of Turkish horsemen
 in The Crusaders

The patriarch of Jerusalem dragged to prison by the Turks
 in The Crusaders

The fleet of Richard Coeur de Lion attacking a great Turkish ship
 in The Crusaders

Stephen enlisting boys and girls for the children's crusade
 in The Crusaders

The Saracens casting Greek fire into the camp of King Louis
 in The Crusaders

King Louis started for the Crusades.
 in Stories from French History

Entry of the crusaders into Jerusalem
 in Famous Men of the Middle Ages

Richard Coeur de Lion and Saladin, ruler of the faithful, entering Jerusalem
 in Famous Men of the Middle Ages

The Children's Crusade
 in Famous Men of the Middle Ages

Crusaders on the march
 in The Story of the Middle Ages

St. Louis in Captivity
 in The Story of the Middle Ages
Godfrey De Bouillon
Godfrey De Bouillon
 in Back Matter
Saladin
Saladin
 in Back Matter

Norse crusaders offering their services to the Emperor of Constantinople
 in Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey

Wherever the battle was hottest, Richard seemed to spring from the ground
 in Stories from the Crusades

Peter set off with an unruly band of men
 in Stories from the Crusades

Bohemond led the way himself
 in Stories from the Crusades

Peter held a lance-head high in the air
 in Stories from the Crusades

They knelt on the rocky track
 in Stories from the Crusades

Louis sprang into the water
 in Stories from the Crusades

Richard leaves the Holy Land
 in Barbarian and Noble

Each Crusader fell on his knees.
 in The Discovery of New Worlds

The Arrival of the Crusaders at Jerusalem
 in European Hero Stories

King Richard in Combat
 in European Hero Stories

The Return of the Crusaders.
 in  Barbarossa

Raymond's Ride.
 in  Barbarossa

The Test.
 in  Barbarossa