Short Catechism of Church History - J. Oechtering

List of the Popes

(According to the Gerarchia Cattolica, official edition. Jan. 12, 1904, Rome.)

NOTE.—The list of the Popes of the first and second centuries has been left to us by St. Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, who wrote about the year 200. He says: "With the Church of Rome all churches must agree on account of her higher rank." (Adv. haereses 3, 3.)

Jesus Christ, the Son of God

and Founder of the Church, said to Simon: "Thou art Peter (a rock), and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give to thee the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in Heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven." St. Matt. xvi, 18, 19. "Feed my lambs, feed my sheep." St. John xxi, 15–17.

In virtue of this divine appointment—

1. St. Peter       33–67
became, after the Ascension of Christ, the head of the Church, The First Pope.

2. St. Linus       67–76
born at Volaterra, Italy, is mentioned by St. Paul in the second letter to Timothy, and succeeded St. Peter in the year 67.

3. St. Cletus       76–88
Rome, Martyr.

4. St. Clement I        88–97
Rome, Martyr. He is mentioned y St. Paul in his letter to the Philippians (I, 4). He has left us a letter to the Corinthians, full of pastoral wisdom, and is numbered among the apostolic Fathers.

Century II — 10 Popes

5. St. Evaristus        95–105
Bethlehem, Martyr, prescribed that matrimony should receive the solemn benediction of the priest.

6. St. Alexander I       105–115
Rome, Martyr, insisted on the use of holy water in the churches and houses.

7. St. Sixtus I       115–125
Rome, Martyr. To him is ascribed the insertion of the three-fold Sanctus in the Mass.

8. St. Telesphorus        125–136
Greece, Martyr. Confirmed the Lenten fast and inserted the Gloria in the Mass. Marcion, who had been excommunicated for heresy by his bishop, came to Rome in order to be reconciled, but was rejected by the Pope on account of his hypocrisy.

9. St. Hyginus        136–140
Athens, Martyr. Instituted Subdeaconship and Minor Orders.

10. St. Pius I        140–155
Aquileja, Italy, Martyr; insisted that Easter should be celebrated on a Sunday.

11. St. Anicetus        155–166
Syria, Martyr. St. Polycarp came to Rome in order to confer with him about the time of the celebration of Easter.

12. St. Soterus        166–175
Fondi, Italy, Martyr. He sent spiritual and temporal relief to the Christians, who suffered for the faith in exile and in the mines.

13. St. Eleutherius        195–189
Epirus, Martyr. He sent priests to Britain at the request of King Lucius.

14. St. Victor I       89–199
Africa, Martyr. He convened a council in Rome, in order to settle the dispute of the bishops of Asia Minor about the celebration of Easter.

Century III — 15 Popes

15. St. Zephyrinus        199–217
Rome, Martyr, forbade metropolitans to pass sentence on their suffragan bishops without the consent of the Holy See.

Tertullian wrote about the year 210 of this pope: "I hear that a peremptory decision has been given. The supreme pontiff, the bishop of bishops, has said: 'I remit sin to those who are penitent.'"

16. St. Calixtus I        217–222
Rome, Martyr. One of the largest catacombs of Rome bears his name. The Church has always held his memory in great esteem on account of his successful combats against the heretics of his age.

17. St. Urban I        222–230
Rome, Martyr. In his reign St. Cecilia suffered martyrdom and left her large property to the Church.

18. St. Pontianus        230–235
Rome, Martyr, was banished to the mines of Sardinia, where he suffered the severest privations and such brutal treatment, that he died from its effects.

19. St. Anthems        235–236
Greece, Martyr, ordered the collection of the acts of the martyrs.

20. St. Fabian        236–250
Rome, Martyr. The historian Eusebius relates that the choice fell on him, because a dove had perched on his head at the election.

21. St. Cornelius        250–253
Rome, Martyr. In his reign the clergy of Rome numbered 200, and the faithful 50,000. He convened a council in which Novatian, a schismatic anti-pope, was excommunicated.

22. St. Lucius I        253–254
Rome, Martyr, suffered exile for the faith.

23. St. Stephen I        254–257
Rome, Martyr. He upheld against St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, the ancient custom of the Church, not to re-baptize persons who had been baptized in due form by heretics.

24. St. Sixtus II        257–258
Greece, Martyr. The famous martyrdom of St. Lawrence took place three days after his, according to his prediction.

25. St. Dionysius        259–268

26. St. Felix I        269–274
Rome, Martyr, prescribed the rite for the dedication of churches. In his letter to the bishop of Alexandria he stated the teaching of the Church on the Blessed Trinity so clearly that the Council of Ephesus (431) quoted from it.

In the dispute about the bishopric of Antioch, provoked by the heresy of Paul of Samosata, Emperor Aurelian gave the remarkable decision: "Let him be bishop of Antioch who is in communion with the bishops of Italy, especially with the bishop of Rome."

27. St. Eutychian        275–283
Luni, Tuscany, Martyr. He forbade Holy Communion to drunkards, until they had reformed, but ordered wine to be blessed on the altar in condemnation of the Manichean heresy.

28. St. Caius        283–296
Dalmatia, Martyr, was a near relation of Emperor Diocletian and converted many of the Roman nobility.

29. St. Marcellinus        296–304
Rome, Martyr.

Century IV — 10 Popes

30. St. Marcellus I        304–309
Rome, Martyr, insisted that councils used the approbation of the Holy See.

31. St. Eusebius        309–310
Greek from southern Italy.

32. St. Miltiades        311–314
Africa. The last of the Popes buried in the catacombs. With the conversion of Emperor Constantine the era of persecutions ceased. For two hundred years, from St. Peter to St. Marcellus, the Popes had died the death of martyrdom for the fundamental truth of Christianity, that Christ is the Son of God.

Now the Church comes forth from the catacombs and the spiritual supremacy of the Popes over the whole Christian world appears plainly as an acknowledged fact.

33. St. Sylvester I        314–335
Rome, prescribed that the altars be of stone and covered with linen. His legates presided over the General Council of Nice (325), in which Arianism was condemned.

34. St. Mark       336
Rome. The first Pope who conferred the pallium.

35. St. Julius I       337–352
Rome, decreed the celebration of Christmas on the 25th of December for the whole Church. St. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, appealed to him and was upheld by him against the Arian bishops. He declared to the bishops of the council, held at Sardica: "The Canons of the Church forbid, that decrees be published by the bishops without the sanction of the bishop of Rome."

36. St. Liberius        352–366
Rome. He wrote to the Arian emperor: "Do not interfere in Church affairs and give not precepts, but rather learn them from us." He bore his exile with fortitude and returned an unconquered defender of the faith.

37. St. Damasus I        366–384
Spain, (Rome?), one of the most learned and zealous popes of Christian antiquity. He called St. Jerome to Rome, who at his request made his famous translation of the Holy Scriptures, called the Vulgate. In a synod at Rome he condemned the errors of Macedonius, three years before the council of Constantinople (II. General Council, held at Constantinople A.D. 381) and conferred by his sanction the title "ecumenical" upon it. The creed of the council of Nice was enlarged at this council.

38. St. Siricius        381–399
Rome, held several councils for the suppression of heresies.

39. St. Anastasius I        399–401
Rome, censured the errors of Origen.

Century V — 12 Popes

40. St. Innocent I       401–417
Albano, Italy. The bishops of northern Africa sent the acts of their council, in which the heresy of Pelagius was condemned to him. He approved them and excommunicated Pelagius. Then St. Augustine wrote: "The acts have been sent to the Holy See and the answer has arrived. The case is finished; let the heresy how have an end."

41. St. Zozimus        417–418
Greece, permitted the blessing of the Easter-candle in all parish churches.

42. St. Boniface I       418–422
Rome, admonished the bishops of France to obtain for their councils the confirmation of the Holy See.

43. St. Celestine I        422–432
Campagna, Italy. In his reign St. Patrick, who had received apostolic faculties from him, converted Ireland. He sent St. Palladius from Ronie to Scotland as its first bishop. When the heresy of Nestorius became known, St. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria appealed to Roflie, and Pope Celestine convened the III. General Council, held at Ephesus ( A.D. 431), in which the heresy of Nestorius was condemned.

44. St. Sixtus III        432–440

45. St. Leo I, the Great       440–461
Tusculum. He saved Rome from the disastrous invasion of the barbarian Huns. The IV. General Council which condemned the heresy of Eutyches, was convened at Chalcedon, A.D. 451. When Anatolius, patriarch of Constantinople, requested the council to grant to his see the place of honor next to Rome, Pope Leo wrote to the emperor: Anatolius may boast of being bishop of the imperial residence, but he cannot make it an apostolic See.

46. St. Hilary        461–468
Sardinia. From him dates the beginning of the great Vatican Library.

47. St. Simplicius        468–483
Tivoli, Italy.

48. St. Felix III        483–492
Rome. In his reign occurred the famous miracle of Tipasa, where 300 Christian martyrs, whose tongues had been cut out by the persecutors, continued to speak and to sing the praises of Christ to the wonder of the world.

49. St. Gelasius I       492–496
Africa. He held a council in Rome, by which the canon of the Holy Scriptures was decreed and a large number of apocryphal books was rejected. He introduced the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin.

50. St. Anastasius II        496–498
Rome. Conversion of Clovis, king of the Franks.

51. St. Symmachus        498–514
Sardinia. Protected the Church in troubled times against schism and heresy, and supported 225 bishops, exiled during the persecution, in Africa. When the Arian king Theodoric convened a synod and demanded, that the bishops should condemn Symmachus, they answered: "It has never happened, that the head of the Church was judged by his subjects."

Century VI — 13 Popes

52. St. Hormisdas        514–523
Frosinone, Italy. He upheld the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon against the violence of Emperor Anastasius.

53. St. John I       523–526
Tuscany, Martyr. The Arian Theodoric, king of the Visigoths, commenced a persecution, during which the holy Pope died in prison and the famous Christian philosopher Boethius was beheaded.

54. St. Felix IV       526–530
Benevent, Italy.

55. Boniface II        530–532
Rome. Under him the learned Dionysius Exiguus introduced the counting of the Christian era, commencing with the birth of Christ.

56. John II        532–535
Rome. Emperor Justinian of Constantinople addressed him in his letter as the head of all churches.

57. St. Agapitus        535–536

58. St. Silverius        536–538
Frosinone, Italy, Martyr. Died in exile, whither the emperor had sent him at the instigation of the Monophysites. The bishop of Patara defended him before the emperor, and said: "Remember, there are many kings on earth, but only one Pope over all the churches of the world."

59. Vigilius        538–555
Rome. Under him the V. General Council was convened at Constantinople and the famous dispute about the so-called Three Chapters settled (553). When Emperor Justinian used violence against the Pope, he answered: "You can make a prisoner of me, but not of the apostle St. Peter."

60. Pelagius I        555–561

61. John III        561–574

62. Benedict I        575–579
Rome, in a period of war and famine a benefactor of Italy.

63. Pelagius II        579–590
Rome. Italy was visited by a fearful pestilence during which the Pope turned his house into a hospital and died a victim of his self-sacrificing charity.

64. St. Gregory I the Great        590–604
Rome. One of the greatest Fathers and Doctors of the Church. He sent St. Augustine with 40 Benedictine monks to convert England. He reformed the plain chant, and developed a wonderful activity in establishing ecclesiastical discipline and order in all parts of the world. Through the head of the Church he styled himself "the servant of the servants of God."

Century VII — 20 Popes

65. Sabinian        604–606
Frascati, Italy. Introduction of bells.

66. Boniface III        607
Rome. Emperor Phocas forbade the patriarch of Constantinople to use the title ecumenical, "because", he said, "Rome is the see of St. Peter and head of all churches."

67. St. Boniface IV        608–615
Marsi, Italy, dedicated the ancient Pantheon, or temple of all pagan Gods, to the Blessed Virgin. Institution of All-Saints day.

68. St. Adeodatus I        615–618
Rome, displayed heroic charity during a fearful pestilence.

69. Boniface V        619–625
Naples, took the young church of England under his special care.

70. Honorius I        625–638
Campagna, Italy. He has been censured for having been remiss in condemning the heresy of the Monothelites. But this remissness was caused by the deceiving letter of Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, their leader. He encouraged the conversion of England, and sent St. Birinus as bishop of Dorchester.

71. Severinus        640

72. John IV        640–642
Dalmatia, expended the treasures of the Church to redeem captive Christians, Ind sent warning to the clergy of Scotland against a threatened revival of Pelagianism.

73. Theodore I        642–649
Greece. 86 African bishops sent to him a synodal letter, in which they had written: "Since the earliest age it has been law, that decrees, formed in the most distant provinces, receive their legal force only through the confirming authority of the Roman See."

74. St. Martin I        649–655
Todi, Italy, Martyr. For having condemned the heresy of the Monothelites, he was dragged a prisoner to Constantinople and sent into exile, where he died a martyr to the Faith.

75. St. Eugene I        655–656

76. St. Vitalian        657–672
Segni, Italy, sent the learned monk Theodore to England, as archbishop of Canterbury with jurisdiction over all England. His coming introduced an era of sacred and secular learning and education. Convents and convent schools flourished, which produced famous men like Venerable Bede, Alcuin and many others.

Introduction of organs into the churches of Italy.

77. Adeolatus II        672–676

78. Donus I        676–678

79. St. Agatho        678–682
a Greek, born in Palmero, Sicily. In his letter to the VI. General Council (at Constantinople, 68o) he says: "It is a fact, that this See (Rome) through the grace of God has never strayed from the apostolic tradition and has never been tainted by heresy, because it has been said to Peter: 'I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not.' "

80. St. Leo II        682–683
Sicily. In his decree, confirming the VI. General Council, he says: "We confirm it with the authority of St. Peter."

81. St. Benedict II        684–685

82. John V        685–686

83. Conan        686–687
Thrace. Ordained St. Kilian, apostle of Franconia, Germany.

84. St. Sergius I        687–701
a Syrian, born in Palmero, Sicily. Cedualla, King of East Anglia, Britain, was baptized in Rome. Sergius made St. Willibrord, the apostle of Friesland, bishop of that country.

Century VIII — 13 Popes

85. John VI        701–705
Greece, held a Synod in Rome, in order to settle the dispute about the See of York, England.

86. John VII        705–707

87. Sisinnius        708

88. Constantine        708–715
Syria. In his reign two English kings, Conrad of Mercia and Offa of Essex, came to Rome, resigned their crowns and entered a monastery.

89. St. Gregory II        715–731
Rome. He gave apostolic faculties to St. Corbinian, the apostle of Bavaria, and ordained St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany, bishop, and made him primate of Germany.

Leo, the Isaurian, emperor of Constantinople, began the dispute about sacred images. (Iconoclasts.)

90. St. Gregory III        731–741
Syria, held a Council in Rome against the Iconoclasts.

91. St. Zachary        941–752
Greece. He saved Rome from the assault of the Lombards, and ratified the election of Pepin to the throne of the Franks.

92. Stephen II        752
Rome, died before his consecration.

93. St. Stephen III        752–757
Rome. He anointed Pepin, King of the Franks, at Paris. Pepin defeated the troublesome Lombards and gave the provinces and cities, taken from them, to the Holy See.

94. St. Paul I        757–767
Rome, turned his father's house into a convent and was a zealous patron of monastic life.

95. Stephen IV        768–771

96. Adrian I        771–795
Rome. Friend of Charles, the Great. VII. General Council (at Nice, 787), which condemned the heresy of the Iconoclasts.

97. St. Leo III        795–816
Rome. Consecrated Charles, the Great, Roman emperor of the West, and protector of the Church. King Aethelwolf of England brought his son Alfred (later the Great) to Rome, to have his son anointed king by the Pope.

Century IX — 20 Popes

98. St. Stephen V        816–817

99. St. Paschal I        817–824
Rome, showed great zeal for the conversion of Denmark.

100. Eugene II        824–827
Rome, held a council in Rome which decreed that in all episcopal cities, in parishes, and fitting localities, schools for common and higher education should be erected.

101. Valentine        827
Rome, reigned 40 days.

102. Gregory IV        828–844
Rome, conferred the pallium on St. Ansgar, and appointed him apostolic legate over the northern nations.

103. Sergius II        844–847
Rome, called a father of the poor, the orphans and widows.

104. St. Leo IV        847–855
Rome. The piratical Saracens, who ravaged the coasts of Italy, were defeated by the papal army, and the port of the Tiber and Rome protected by fortifications.

105. Benedict III        855–858

106. St. Nicholas I        858–867
Rome. A great and energetic Pope in troubled times. He upheld the sacredness of marriage against Count Baldwin of Flanders and King Lothar II., and enforced ecclesiastical discipline and law everywhere. Beginning of the Greek Schism.

Lothar had dismissed his lawful wife Theutberga and attempted to marry Waldrada. Although besieged by an imperial army, Nicholas resisted until his death. Under his successor Adrian the king came to Rome and swore a false oath on the Blessed Sacrament, that he had returned to his duty, and was admitted to h. Communion. But the sacrilege was followed by a terrible punishment. The king and all who had joined in his crime died of a mysterious disease, while returning home.

107. Adrian II        867–872
Rome. VIII. General Council, held at Constantinople, condemned Photius and settled the Greek Schism. (869–870.)

108. John VIII        872–882
Rome, received St. Methodius, apostle of the Slavs in Rome, and granted special faculties to him, f. i.  to read after the gospel of the Mass its Slavic translation to the people.

109. Martinus I        882–884
Gallese, Italy; first Bishop of Cere. Friend of King Alfred of England, to whom he sent a particle of the Holy Cross.

He assisted him in establishing schools and forbade to tax such property. He is the first pope, who had been bishop before his election.

110. St. Adrian Ill        884–885

111. Stephen VI        885–891
Rome, a father of the poor. He distributed all his property among the needy when he became Pope, and fed orphans and poor people at his own table.

112. Formosus        891–896
Rome. Had been bishop of Porto. Crowned Arnulf, emperor of Germany. The Greek schismatics submitted to the Pope.

113. Boniface VI        896
Rome, died shortly after his election.

Stephen VII        897–898

115. Romanus        898
Gallese, Italy, lived only three months after his election.

116. Theodore II        898
Rome. His pontificate lasted 20 days.

117. John IX        898–900
Tivoli, Italy. The bishops of Southern Germany saluted him in their address as "the august bishop, not of one city, but the whole world."

Century X — 23 Popes

During this period the Holy See suffered greatly from the disturbances caused by contending and powerful factions, and its occupants have been grievously slandered by Luitprand, the chronicler of that time. He was a creature of the imperial party and bitterly opposed the Italian party, under whose protection the popes ruled during these troubled times.

118. Benedict IV        900–903
Rome, a saintly pope and father of the poor.

119. Leo V        903
Ardea, Italy, died soon after his election.

120. Sergius III        904–911

121. Anastasius III        911–913
Rome, a pope praised for his mildness and blameless life.

122. Landus        913–914
from Sabino, Italy, ruled only six months.

123. John X        915–928
Ravenna, Italy, freed the pontifical states from the inroads of the Saracenes and restored church discipline in Germany.

124. Leo VI        928–929

125. Stephen VIII        929–931
Conversion of King Wratislaw of Bohemia.

126. John XI        931–936
Rome. Resisted the unlawful marriage of King Hugo, for which he suffered imprisonment.

127. Leo VIII        936–939

128. Stephen IX        939–942

129. Martinus II        943–946
Rome, devoted his life to works of charity and peace.

130. Agapitus II        916–956
Rome. Conversion of Harold, King of Denmark, and erection of bishoprics in his realm.

131. John XII        956–964
Rome. The first Pope who changed his name after election. He annointed Otto, the Great, of Germany, as Roman emperor, which dignity remained thenceforth with the rulers of the German Empire.

132. Leo VIII        963–965

133. Benedict V        961–966
Rome. Was driven from the throne in 964.

134. John XIII        965–972
Rome, sent legates to Poland, whose King Miesco had been converted to the faith.

135. Benedict VI        972–973

136. Benedict VII        975–984
Rome, held several synods against the sin of simony, was a father of the poor and a patron of monastic life.

137. John XIV        984–985
Pavia, Italy.

138. John XV        985–996
Rome, established peace between King Ethelred of England and the Duke of Normandy.

139. Gregory V        996–999
Karnthen, Germany, cousin of Emperor Otto III. He said to the imperial and the republican parties, who disputed about their rights in papal elections: "We are representatives of the prince of the apostles and therefore hold our power from him alone."

140. Sylvester II        999–1003
Auvergne, France, gave to St. Stephen, King of Hungary, the title of "Apostolic Majesty". The celebration of All Souls Day, which had been introduced by St. Odilo of Cluny, was made by him general for the whole Church.

Century XI — 19 Popes

141. John XVII        1003

142. John X VIII        1004–1009
Rome, ordained St. Bruno, the apostle of the Prussians.

143. Sergius IV        1009–1012
Rome, a Pope of great humility, charity and learning.

144. Benedict VIII        1012–1024
Rome. The monk Guido of Arezzo invented the system of notes, which caused a new era in the development of music. The Pope called him to Rome and appointed him teacher of music.

145. John XIX        1024–1032
Rome, received King Rudolf of Burgundy and King Canute of Denmark, who Caine ou a pilgrimage to Rome. He also crowned Emperor Conrad of Germany.

146. Benedict IX        1032–1044
Rome. Resigned in the year 1044.

147. Silvester III        1045

148. Benedict IX, second time        1045

149. Gregory VI        1045–1046
Rome. Resigned in the year 1046. During these two pontificates Rome had become a prey to the feuds of lawless lords and parties, among whom the Counts of Tusculum were most powerful. Hence Emperor Henry III. of Germany interfered to restore order and to protect the Holy See.

150. Clement 1I        1046–1047
Saxony, Germany, crowned Emperor Henry III.

151. Benedict IX, third time        1047–1048

152. Damasus I        1048
Bavaria, Germany, ruled only 23 days.

153. St. Leo I        1049–1054
Alsatia, Germany. He entered Rome in the humble garb of a pilgrim and devoted his life to enforce ecclesiastical discipline and order. Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople, renewed the Greek Schism.

154. Victor II        1055–1057
Nordgau, Germany, continued the reforms of his predecessor.

155. Stephen X        1057–1058
Lorain, Germany.

156. Nicholas I        1059–1061
Burgundy, established the rule that the Pope should be elected by the Cardinals.

159. Alexander II        1061–1073
Baggio, Italy.

158. St. Gregory VII        1073–1087
Soana, Italy. A great and holy Pope, whose life was devoted to reforming abuses, which had crept into the Church, and to resisting with heroic fortitude the encroachments of princely power on the rights of the Church. When Henry IV. of Germany, who had done penance at Canossa and been absolved, rebelled again and invaded Rome, Gregory had to flee and died at Salerno. The last words of the great defender of the Church were: "I have loved justice and hated iniquity; therefore I die in exile." He defended with equal firmness the sacredness of marriage and forced Henry IV. by the censures of the Church to return to his lawful wife Bertha.

159. Blessed Victor III        1087–1088
Benevent, Italy.

160. Blessed Urban II        1088–1099
Rheims, France. He held a large assembly in Clermont, in France, in which the first crusade for the deliverance of the Holy Sepulchre of Our Lord was resolved on.

161. Paschal II        1099–1118
Bieda, Italy. His reign was disturbed by the struggle about the Right of Investiture between the Holy See and the princes (Henry I. of England, Henry IV. and Henry V. of Germany.)

Century XII — 16 Popes

162. Gelasius II        1118–1119
Gaeta, Italy. The dispute about the Right of Investiture continued. The Pope had to flee before Henry V. and died in Clugny, France.

163. Calixtus II        1119–1124
Burgundy. The dispute about the Right of Investiture was finally settled by the Concordat of Worms (1122), so that the emperor should invest prelates with the temporal power by his sceptre, and the Pope with the spiritual power by crosier and ring. IX. General Council, held at the Lateran in Rome (1123), solemnly sanctioned the Concordat and promulgated canons against simony, counterfeiting of coin, and disturbing of pilgrimages and crusades.

164. Honorius II        1121–1130
Fagnano, Italy.

165. Innocent II        1130–1143
Rome. He held the X. General Council at the Lateran (1139) mainly about the reform of Church discipline.

166. Celestine II        1113–1144
Citta di Castello, Italy.

167. Lucius II        1114–1145
Bologna, Italy.

168. Blessed Eugene III        1145–1153
Montemagno, Italy. He was a disciple of StjBernard, who preached the second crusade.

169. Anastasius IV        1153–1154
Rome, a venerable man of 90 years, who died a few months after his election.

170. Adrian IV        1154–1159
England. In his reign commenced the disastrous dispute with the ambitious Emperor Frederic I. of Germany, who strove to foist the absolutism of the empire of old pagan Rome upon the Christian Roman Empire, conferred by Pope Leo III. upon Charlemagne.

171. Alexander III        1159–1181
Siena, Italy. Emperor Frederic Barbarossa of Germany besieged Rome, but a pestilence destroyed his army. He made peace with the Pope, and so did Henry II. of England. XI. General Council, held at the Lateran, Rome condemned the errors of the Albigenses (1179), and renewed the canons of former Councils against simony, usury, dangerous tournaments, and lawless feuds of the knights.

172. Lucius III        1181–1185
Lucca, Italy, settled ecclesiastical disputes with King William of Scotland.

173. Urban III        1185–1187
Milan, Italy.

174. Gregory VIII        1187
Benevent, Italy.

175. Clement III        1187–1191
Rome. The third crusade under Frederic Barbarossa.

176. Celestine III        1191–1198
Rome, defended the sanctity of marriage against the incestuous King Alphons of Leon, Spain, and against Philip II. of France, who attempted a divorce from his lawful wife Ingeborg of Denmark.

177. Innocent III        1198–1216
Anagni, Italy, called the teacher of the world and the father of kings. He worked for the suppression of the Albigensian heresy and peace between the princes; held the XII. General Council at the Lateran against the heresies of the age and for the reformation of morals (1215). The commandment of the annual paschal communion was framed at this Council. St. Francis of Assisium founded the Franciscan, and St. Dominic the Dominican Order.

Century XIII — 17 Popes

178. Honorius III        1216–1227
Rome, gave the papal approbation to Franciscan and Dominican Orders.

179. Gregory IX        1227–1241
Anagni, Italy, a great and saintly Pope, who defended the honor and rights of the Church against the tyrannical Frederic II. of Germany.

180. Celestine IV        1241
Milano, Italy, died 17 days after his election.

181. Innocent IV        1243–1254
Genova, Italy. He convened the XIII. General Council at Lyons, France, by which Frederick II., emperor of Germany, was excommunicated and deposed (1245).

182. Alexander IV        1254–1261
Anagni, Italy.

183. Urban IV        1261–1264
Troyes, France. Instituted the Feast of Corpus Christi.

184. Clement IV        1265–1268
France. Last crusade under Louis IX. of France

185. Blessed Gregory X        1272–1276
Piacenza, Italy Held the XIV. General Council at Lyons (1274) at which 500 bishops, one king and ambassadors of the Christian governments of Europe, representatives of the Greek emperor and his prelates, and ambassadors of the Grand Khan of Tartary were present. Four of the latter were baptized and the Greeks abjured their schism. Death of the great scholastics and doctors of the Church, St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Bonaventure. Rudolf of Hapsburg, king of Germany, restored order in the disturbed empire with the help of the Pope and the bishops.

186. Blessed Innocent V        1276
Savoy, ruled only five months.

187. Adrian V        1276
Genova, Italy, died 36 days after his election.

188. John XXI        1276–1277
Lisbon, Portugal, had a short, but active pontificate.

189. Nicholas III        1277–1280

190. Martin IV        1281–1285
France, a father of the poor in the terrible famine, which visited the pontifical states.

191. Honorius IV        1285–1287

192. Nicholas IV        1288–1292
Ascoli, Italy.

193. St. Celestine V        1294
Isernia, Italy, resigned in order to become a hermit.

194. Boniface VIII        1194–1303
Anagni, Italy, mediated the peace between contending princes, canonized St. Louis of France, and proclaimed the first Jubilee indulgence. He defended the rights of the Church with great dignity against the covetous Ring Philip, the Fair, of France, and suffered persecution and insults from the king's minions with apostolic fortitude.

Century XIV — 10 Popes

195. Blessed Benedict XI        1303–1304
Treviso, Italy. When his mother visited him in his pontifical state, the courtiers presented her arrayed in a rich dress; but the Pope would not recognize her until she appealed in the dress of her humble station. Then he arose, full of reverence, and said: "This is indeed my mother."

196. Clement V        1305–1314
France. Under him the Knights Templar were suppressed at the urgent demand of Philip the Fair, by the XV. General Council held at Vienne, France (1312). The Council proclaimed the dogma, that the human soul is the "form", i.e. life giving principle of the body, a doctrine which renders the theory of evolution (as understood by modern infidelity) untenable. He established his residence at Avignon, France, which was continued by the five succeeding French Popes.

197. John XXIL        1316–1331
France, a great scholar in canon law and protector of the universities. He caused the erection of the universities of Cambridge, England, and Cahors, France. From him dates the tolling of the bells for the evening Angelus.

198. Benedict XII        1334–1342
France, established peace between Portugal and Spain.

199. Clement VI        1342–1352
France. Cola Rienzi's revolt in Rome. During the fearful black pestilence which devastated Europe, the Pope protected the Jews against the excited people.

200. Innocent VI        1352–1362
France. Heresy of Wyckliffe, in England, who had been disappointed in regard to an ecclesiastical office andvented his discontent by teaching rebellion against papal authority.

201. Blessed Urban V        1362–1370

202. Gregory XI        1370–1378
France. The residence of Popes in Avignon ended with him, and was taken up again in Rome.

203. Urban VI        1378–1389
Naples, Italy. Six months after his election began the so-called Western Schism, caused by a number of cardinals, who claimed that Urban's election had not been according to the canons of the Church, and then elected an anti-pope, Clement VII., who was succeeded by Benedict XIII.

204. Boniface IX        1389–1404
Naples, Italy, legitimate successor of Urban VI.

Century XV. — 11 Popes

205. Innocent VII        1404–1406
Solmona, Italy.

206. Gregory XII        1406–1415
Venice, Italy. A council was convened by a number of cardinals at Pisa in order to stop the schism, but resulted only in the election of another doubtful Pope. Gregory XII resigned finally at the General Council of Constance, in 1415, under the condition that the Council be first legitimately convoked by his authority, and then should elect another Pope to succeed him. The Council condemned the heresy of Wycliffe and Huss.

207. Martin V.        1417–1431
Rome. Was elected by the Council of Constance. The schism ceased.

208. Eugene IV        1431–1447
Venice. Convened the XVII. General Council, which was held first at Ferrara, then at Florence (1438). The Greek Bishops submitted and were united with the Church; but five years later the schism revived. Thus the Greeks themselves, having submitted three times to the authority of the Church, have judged and condemned their schism.

209. Nicholas V        1447–1455
Sarzana, Italy, fostered arts and sciences and is one of the founders of modern science. He formed the famous Vatican Library and gathered the greatest artists, scientists and learned men of the age around him. During his reign Constantinople was conquered by the Turks (1453).

210. Calixtus III        1455–1458
Spain. He preached and supported a crusade against the Turks, who threatened Europe. The Christians vanquished the Turks' power in the famous battle of Belgrade. He issued a solemn decision that Joan of Arc died a martyr for her religion and her country.

211. Pius II        1458–1464
Siena, Italy (Aeneas Sylvius). Condemned the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, France, which became afterwards the foundation of Gallicanism. Its most obnoxious proposition claimed the superiority of General Councils over the Pope.

212. Paul II        1464–1471
Venice. The first printing press was established in Rome.

213. Sixtus IV        1471–1484
Savona, Italy, received an embassy of the Czar of Russia, which brought Russia's rejection of the Greek Schism and submission to the Church according to the Council of Florence.

214. Innocent VIII        1484–1492
Genoa, mediated peace in England, distracted by the War of the Roses. Spain was freed from Mohammedanism and Amefica discovered by Columbus.

215. Alexander VI        1492–1503
Borgia, Spain. A Pope whose character has been severely censured by historians. The political troubles which disturbed Italy and the pontifical states engrossed his energy. While the unruly barons chafed under his iron rule, the people of Rome loved him as a strong but generous master. In his administration of Church affairs he followed the traditional rules, made wise constitutions and never passed any decree at variance with faith and morals.

In his reign here lived at Florence one Savonarola, a Dominican friar, remarkable for his ascetic piety and fervent eloquence. His eccentric and visionary character led him by degrees to exchange his missionary work with the role of a political and social reformer. The ensuing disturbances caused Alexander VI. to enjoin silence; but Savanarola refused to obey and violently attacked the Pope from the pulpit. Excommunication followed. Finally the government of Florence condemned the friar to death, which he suffered with edifying piety and as a faithful son of the Church.

Century XVI. — 17 Popes

216. Pius III        1503
Siena, Italy.

217. Julius II        1503–1513
Savona, Italy, laid the foundation of the Basilica of St. Peter, was the patron of art and the friend of Michael Angelo, Raphael, and other eminent artists. He convened the XVIII General Council in the Lateran, Rome, in which the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges was solemnly condemned, and decrees about universities, peace among Christian princes and reforms were passed.

218. Leo X        1573–1521
Florence, Italy. Completed the Basilica of St. Peter, the grandest cathedral of the world. He excommunicated Luther.

219. Adrian VI        1522–7523
Utrecht, Holland.

220. Clement VII        1523–1534
Florence, excommunicated Henry VIII. for divorcing himself from his lawful wife and marrying another.

221. Paul III        1534–1549
Rome, convoked the XIX. General Council at Trent, Tyrol. He approved the newly founded Order of the Jesuits.

222. Julius III        1550–1555
Rome. Interruption of the Council of Trent on account of wars in Germany and Italy.

223. Marcellus II        1555
Montepulciano, Italy, reigned only 22 days.

224. Paul IV        1555–1559
Naples, Italy, published a bull, in which he forbade, under excommunication, to establish slavery among the Indians of the West Indies.

225. Pius IV        1559–1565
Milano, Italy, ended and confirmed the Council of Trent, in which the errors of Protestantism were condemned, and most salutary reforms in regard to morals and Church discipline were proposed and begun. He reformed Church music with the assistance of the great Palestrina. St. Charles Borromeo, the great Archbishop of Milan and true reformer of Church discipline, was his nephew.

226. St. Pius V        1566–1572
Bosco, Italy, a great Saint and untiring reformer of abuses, who remained on the papal throne the humble and ascetic Dominican monk, he had been before.

227. Gregory XIII        1572–1585
Bologna, Italy, corrected the calendar, which was gratefully received by the whole Christian world and is to-day in general, use, even in protestant countries.

228. Sixtus V        1585–1590
Grottamare, Italy. A great and just ruler, who made the pontifical states the best governed country in Europe and organized the administration of ecclesiastical affairs in an admirable manner.

229. Urban VII        1590
Rome; died before his coronation.

230. Gregory XIV        1590–1591
Cremona, Italy, a man of charity, prayer and ascetic life.

231. Innocent IX        1591
Bologna, Italy, died two months after his election.

232. Clement VIII        1592–1605
Florence, Italy, established peace between Spain and France, and between France and Savoy. He published the revised edition of the Vulgate Bible, which has been ever since the official text used by the Church.

Century XVII. — 11 Popes

233. Leo XI        1605
Florence, Italy.

234. Paul V        1605–1621
Rome, a man of prayer and devoted servant of Mary. He established the perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament.

235. Gregory XV        1621–1623
Bologna, Italy, founded the Propaganda and canonized St. Ignatius and St. Francis Xavier.

236. Urban VIII        1623–1644
Florence, Italy, a man of great learning, patron of science and art and full of zeal for the welfare of the Church.

237. Innocent X        1644–1655
Rome, condemned the errors of Jansenism, which maintained that by original sin man has lost his freedom of will, and that divine grace is irresistible. Innocent supported Ireland with ships and money in defending its faith.

238. Alexander VII        1655–1667
Siena, Italy.

239. Clement 1X        1667–1669
Pistoja, Italy, mediated the peace between France and Spain and extended the missions in heathen lands.

240. Clemeltt X        1670–1676
Rome, forced Portugal to close its tribunal of the Inquisition.

241. Innocent XL        1676–1689
Como, Italy, condemned the four Gallican articles and firmly opposed King Louis XIV. of France in his attacks on the rights of the Church.

242. Alexander VIII        1689–1691
Venice, Italy, supported Venice in its wars against the Turks.

243. Innocent XII        1695–1700
Naples, Italy, was admired by all for his knowledge and virtues; a father of the orphans and the poor, and he upheld papal infallibility against Gallicanism.

Century XVIII. — 8 Popes

During this century the Catholic princes of Europe adopted Gallican principles and strove persistently to oppress the Church in their dominions by tyrannous laws. It became their policy to hinder the Holy See in its communication with the bishops of their respective countries, to oppose the religious orders and to foster an irreligious spirit. Hence each pontificate of this century is marked by a continual and sorrowful struggle for the rights and liberty of the Church against overbearing and treacherous Catholic princes and governments. But the dark pages of the history of this century are redeemed by the great piety, learning, and patience of these eight pontiffs, who meekly shared with their Divine Master the insults of more than one crowned Herod and the cold injustice of many a time-serving Pilate.

244. Clement XI        1700–1721
Urbino, Italy. He opposed to the haughty injustice of princes a life of prayer and patience, went daily to confession and was a devout client of St. Joseph, on whose feast he died.

245. Innocent XIII        1721–1724
Rome, full of zeal for introducing salutary measures of reform, but surrounded by political difficulties.

246. Benedict XIII        1724–1730
Rome. He accepted the heavy responsibility of the papal dignity with tears of sorrow and only in obedience to his superiors, and continued upon his throne the humble and ascetic life of the Dominican Order, to which he belonged.

247. Clement XII        1730–1740
Florence, Italy, excommunicated Freemasonry, which had become and ally of the governments in their general hostility to the holy see.

248. Benedict XIV        1740–1758
Bologna, Italy. A man of profound learning and author of important works on canon law.

249. Clement XIII        1758–1769
Venice, Italy, defended without wavering the rights of the Holy See and the Society of Jesus against the growing persecution of evil-minded governments, but finally died almost broken-hearted, a martyr Pope on the throne.

250. Clement XIV        1769–1774
Angelo in Vado, Italy. The Conspiracy of the minsters Pombal of Portugal, Aranda of Spain, Tanucci of Naples, supported by Voltaire and the Jansenists in France, had prepared a storm of passion against the Order of the Jesuits, who had been the staunch defenders of the rights of the Church against the encroachments of absolute state power. The kings of thse respective countries, mostly of the Bourbon family, combined to force the Pope to decree the abolition of the Order. The Jesuits submitted to the decision of the Holy See with dignified obedience.

Shortly after the bloody French revolution broke out and swept over Europe, breaking the thrones of those absolute rulers, who had throughout the XVIII century annoyed the Holy See and endeavored to enslave the Church.

251. Pius VI        1775–1799
Cesena, Italy. The army of the French revolution occupied the pontifical states. Pius VI. Was dragged into captivity and died in Valencia, praying for his persecutors.

Century XIX. — 6 Popes

252. Pius VII        1800–1823
Cesena, Italy. With apostolic courage he defended the rights of the Church against the tyranny of the all-powerful Napoleon, emperor of the French, although a captive at Fontainebleau. But Napoleon lost his throne and the Pope returned in triumph to Rome. His first act was the re-establishment of the Order of the Jesuits in compliance with the general wish of the Christian world.

253. Leo XII        1823–1829
Genga, Italy. A pontiff of a apostolic zeal and a patron of education and learning. He combated the religious indifferentism of the age and renewed the censures against Freemasonry.

254. Pius VIII        1829–1830
Cingoli, Italy.

255. Gregory XVI        1831–1846
Belluno, Italy. A Pope of eminent learning and wisdom. He condemned the heretical doctrines of his time and firmly opposed the revolutionary plotting which pervaded Europe. When Czar Nicholas I. of Russia visited the Vatican, Gregory reproached him with apostolic dignity and courage on account of the relentless cruelty, with which the Catholic Poles were persecuted in Russia.

256. Pius IX        1846–1878
Sinigaglia, Italy. The revolution of 1848 swept over Europe and drove Pius into exile. After his return he promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin, condemned the liberalistic errors of the age in his encyclicals, and syllabus, and convened the XX. General Council at the Vatican, in which the dogma of the Infallibility of the Pope was proclaimed.

The King of Italy robbed the Holy See of the pontifical states and Rome, and since then the pope lives a prisoner in the Vatican.

257. Leo XIII        1878–1903
Carpineto, Italy. He instructed and warned Christendom in his clear and profound encyclicals against the dangerous errors of the time, encouraged sacred learning and attracted the hearts of men by his apostolic dignity, charity and mildness.

Note:")?>—The number of the Popes from St. Peter to Pius X. is 258, an imposing list of great and venerable men, who succeeded each other in the See of St. Peter for 1800 years. While the dynasties of the greatest empires disappeared in the lapse of time, this is immortal; for the promise of the eternal God is upon it.

In the fierce battles of faith they bore the first and greatest brunt—34 obtained the crown of Martyrdom and about 40 suffered prison and exile as Confessors of the Faith.

Eighty-two are venerated as Saints on the altars of the Church, and whatever was holy, good and true in the history of Christian nations, found shelter and fostering care with the great and universal shepherds of Christ's flock.

The See of St. Peter has ever been the center of Catholic unity, as St. Cyprian called it; from it the faith has continuously radiated into the world and been safeguarded against error; for our Lord said to St. Peter: "And thou confirm thy brethren." The children of the Church all over the world look with reverence and love upon the venerable Pontiff in the Eternal City, the Father of Christendom. Of whatever race or nationality they be, at his throne all aspirations meet and are harmonized in the same faith and charity, of which he is the divinely appointed guardian; for after Christ had asked St. Peter three times: "Doest thou love me?" He said to him: "Feed my lambs and feed my sheep."

Century XX. — 8 Popes

This list of popes was appended to the original text (published 1899).

258. Pius X        1903–1914
Riese, dioec. Treviso, Italy.

250. Benedict XV        1914-1922
Genoa, Italy.

251. Pius XI        1922-1939
Desio, Italy.

252. Pius XII        1939-1958
Rome, Italy.

253. John XXIII        1958-1963
Sotto Il Monte, Italy.

254. Paul VI        1963-1978
Concesio, Italy

255. John Paul I        1978
Canale d'Agordo, Italy.

256. John Paul II        1978-2005
Wadowice, Poland.

257. Benedict XVI        2005-
Bavaria, Germany.