New World Order - Eustace Mullins

The Rothschilds

"Let me but issue and control a nation's money, and I care not who writes its laws."
Mayer Amshel Bauer (Rothschild).

Rise of the Rothschild Money Network

In its issue of Dec. 19, 1983, Forbes Magazine noted that "Half of Germany's top ten banks are Frankfurt based." The modern world's financial system, an updating of the Babylonian monetary system of taxes and money creation, was perfected in Frankfurt-on-Main, in the province of Hesse. Mayer Amschel Bauer(later Rothschild) discovered that although loans to farmers and small businesses could be profitable, the real profits lay in making loans to governments. Born in Frankfurt in 1743, Mayer Amschel married Gutta Schnapper. He served a three year apprenticeship in Hanover at the Bank of Oppenheim. During this period, he had occasion to be of service to Lt. Gen. Baron von Estorff. von Estorff was the principal adviser to Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse, the wealthiest man in Europe. Frederick was worth from 70 to 100 million florins, much of it inherited from his father, Wilhelm the Eighth, brother of the King of Sweden. Baron von Estorff advised the Landgrave that Mayer Amschel showed an uncanny ability to increase money through his investments. The Landgrave immediately sent for him.

At this time, King George III was trying to put down the American Rebellion. His troops were being out fought by the hardy Americans, who were accustomed to wilderness battles. Mayer Amschel arranged for King George to hire 16,800 sturdy young Hessian soldiers from the Landgrave, a considerable addition to the Hesse's fortune. This advantageous relationship came to a halt with the sudden death in 1785 of the Landgrave, who was only twenty-five years old. However, Mayer Amschel attained absolute influence over his successor, Elector Wilhelm I, who, like Mayer Amschel, had also been born in 1743. It was said that they were like two shoes, so well did they go together. It was a pleasant change from Mayer Amschel's relationship with the former Landgrave, who had been a very difficult and demanding person. In fact, the Landgrave's sudden death had luckily placed Mayer Amschel in charge of the largest fortune in Europe.

As he prospered, Mayer Amschel placed a large red shield over his door of the house in the Judengasse, which he shared with the Schiff family. He took the name "Rothschild" from his sign. In 1812, when he died, he left one billion franks to his five sons. The eldest, Anselm, was placed in charge of the Frankfort bank. He had no children, and the bank was later closed. The second son, Salomon, was sent to Vienna, where he soon took over the banking monopoly formerly shared among five Jewish families, Arnstein, Eskeles, Geymuller, Stein and Sina. The third son, Nathan, founded the London branch, after he had profited in some Manchester dealings in textiles and dyestuffs which caused him to be widely feared and hated. Karl, the fourth son, went to Naples, where he became head of the occult group, the Alta Vendita. The youngest son, James, founded the French branch of the House of Rothschild in Paris.

Thus strategically located, the five sons began their lucrative operations in government finance. Today, their holdings are concentrated in the Five Arrows Fund of Curacao, and the Five ArrowsCorp. Toronto, Canada. The name is taken from the Rothschild sign of an eagle with five arrows clutched in its talons, signifying the five sons.

The first precept of success in making government loans lies in "creating a demand", that is, by taking part in the creation of financial panics, depressions, famines, wars and revolutions. The overwhelming success of the Rothschilds lay in their willingness to do what had to be done. As Frederic Morton writes in the Preface to "The Rothschilds":

"For the last one hundred and fifty years, the history of the House of Rothschild has been to an amazing degree the backstage history of Western Europe. . . Because of their success in making loans not to individuals but to nations, they reaped huge profits. . . Someone once said that the wealth of Rothschild consists of the bankruptcy of nations."

In "The Empire of the City", B.C. Knuth says,

"The fact that the House of Rothschild made its money in the great crashes of history and the great wars of history, the very periods when others lost their money, is beyond question."

On July 8, 1937, the New York Times noted that Prof. Wilhelm, a German historian, had said,

"The Rothschilds introduced the rule of money into European politics. The Rothschilds were the servants of money who undertook the reconstruct the world as an image of money and its functions. Money and the employment of wealth have become the law of European life; we no longer have nations, but economic provinces."

On June 4, 1879, the New York Times noted,

"Baron Lionel N. de Rothschild, head of the world famous banking house of Messrs. Rothschild & Co. died at the age of 71. He was son of the late Baron N.M. Rothschild who founded the house in London in 1808 and died in 1836. His father came to the conclusion that in order to perpetuate the fame and power of the Rothschilds, which had already become worldwide, it was necessary that the family be kept together, and devoted to the common cause. In order to do this, he proposed that they should intermarry, and form no marital unions outside thefamily. A council of the heads of the houses was called at Frankfurt in 1826, and the views of Baron Nathan were approved."

John Reeves, in his authorized biography, The Rothschilds, the Financial Rulers of Nations, noted that when the family met in London in 1857 for the marriage of Lionel's daughter Leonora to her cousin Alphonse, son of James Rothschild of Paris, Disraeli (Prime Minister of England) declared,

"Under this roof are the heads of the family of Rothschild—a name famous in every capital of Europe and every division of the globe. If you like, we shall divide the United States into two parts, one for you, James, and one for you, Lionel. Napoleon will do exactly and all that I shall advise him."

This was the political origin of the American Civil War. The Rothschilds feared the rapidly growing and increasingly prosperous free American Republic, and they privately resolved that it would be less of a danger to their worldwide interests if it were broken up into two smaller and weaker nations.

In The Rothschilds: the Financial Rulers of Nations, John Reeves writes,

"The first occasion in which Nathan assisted the English government was in 18 19, when he undertook the loan of $60 million; from 1818-1832 Nathan issued eight other loans totalling $105,400,000; he subsequently issued eighteen Government loans totalling $700million.Tothe Rothschilds, nothingcouldhaveoccurred more propitiously than the outbreak of the American revolt and the French Revolution, as the two enabled them to lay the foundation of the immense wealth they have since acquired. The House of Rothschild was (and is) the ruling power in Europe, for all the political powers were willing to acknowledge the sway of the great financial Despot, and, like obedient vassals, pay their tribute without murmur. . . Its influence was so all-powerful that it was a saying, no war could be undertaken without the assistance of the Rothschilds. They rose to a position of such power in the political and commercial world that they became the Dictators of Europe. To the public the archives of the family, which could throw so much light upon history, are a profound secret, a sealed book kept well hidden."

On July 27, 1844, Mazzini said, "Rothschild could be King of France if he so desired." The Jewish Encyclopedia noted (1909 edition) "In the year 1848 the Paris house (of Rothschild) was reckoned to be worth 600,000,000 francs as against 352,000,000 francs held by all the other Paris bankers."

In Jews and Modern Capitalism Prof. Wemer Sombart wrote, "The principal loan floaters of the world, the Rothschilds, were later the first railway kings. The period of 1820 onwards became the 'Age of the Rothschilds' so that at the middle of the century it was a common dictum: There is only one power in Europe and that is Rothschild."

Hearst's Chicago Evening American commented, Dec. 3, 1923, "The Rothschilds can start or prevent wars. Their word could make or break empires."

Reeves notes, "The fall of Napoleon was the rise of Rothschild." Napoleon was later slowly poisoned to death with arsenic by a Rothschild agent. They had no need of another "return from exile".

The New York Evening Post noted July 22, 1924, "The Kaiser had to consult Rothschild to find out whether he could declare war. Another Rothschild carried out the whole burden of the conflict which overthrew Napoleon." The Kaiser's Chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, who actually precipitated World War I, was a member of the Frankfort banking family, Bethmann, and a cousin of the Rothschilds.

After the fall of Napoleon, Salomon persuaded the ruler of Austria to issue patents of nobility to the five brothers. The Congress of Vienna was the emergence of the moth from its cocoon. The diktat of this Congress was a simple one—the aristocracies of Europe must submit to our will, or they are doomed. The death sentence upon the noble lines of Europe was pronounced by those who had the will to carry out their edict. It took another century to perfect the work, not because the killers were weak, but because they wished to proceed cautiously, without revealing their full strength. In combat, the decisive weapon is the one your opponent does not know about.

It was not necessary to pronounce a death sentence upon the ruling families of America, because there were none. During the 19th century, a few descendants of colonial entrepreneurs had amassed wealth, and could afford a life of leisure and travel. They remained slavishly dependent upon Continental arbiters in every matter requiring personal taste and judgment. Because they had no guiding philosophy, and no program, this American "upper class" never made it to the top of the stairs. They remained "below stairs" as servants of the London princes of the World Order. Their self-abasement not only manifested itself in an unusually high rate of suicide, but also in the slower forms of self-destruction, alcoholism, drug addiction, and homosexuality.

Homosexuality is not so much a type of sexual drive as it is the expression of deeper needs, the desire for self-degradation, or the seeking of a partner whom one can humiliate and degrade. It could hardly be unexpected that such a "ruling class" would eagerly hail the twentieth century crusade to enthrone Communism as the vehicle of the World Order.

In their quest for wealth, the Rothschilds did not overlook either the small farmer or the stock-piling and wholesaling of grain. They developed a "farm loan" system which has been the curse of the fanners for more than a century. R. F. Pettigrew noted in the British Guardian, "This system of banking (causing the ultimate ruin of all those who cultivate the soil) was the invention of Lord Overstone, with the assistance of the Rothschilds, bankers of Europe."

Confiscation of the Romanov Fortune

One of their greatest triumphs was the successful outcome of the Rothschilds' protracted war against the Russian Imperial Family. The family name of the Romanovs was derived from Roma Nova, New Rome. It embodied the ancient prophecy that Moscow was to become "the New Rome." The family originated with Prince Prus, brother of Emperor August of Rome, who founded Prussia. In 1614, Michael became the first Romanov Czar.

After the fall of Napoleon, the Rothschilds turned all their hatred against the Romanovs. In 1825, they poisoned Alexander I; in 1855, they poisoned Nicholas I. Other assassinations followed, culminating on the night of Nov. 6, 1917, when a dozen Red Guards drove a truck up to the Imperial Bank Building in Moscow. They loaded the Imperial jewel collection and $700 million gold, loot totalling more than a billion dollars. The new regime also confiscated the 150 million acres in Russia personally owned by the Czar.

Of equal importance were the enormous cash reserves which the Czar had invested abroad in European and American banks. The New York Times stated that the Czar had $5 million in Guaranty Trust, and S1 million in the National City Bank; other authorities stated it was $5 million in each bank. Between 1905 and 1910 the Czar had sent more than $400 million to be deposited in six leading New York banks, Chase, National City, Guaranty Trust, J. P. Morgan, Hanover, and Manufacturers Trust. These were the principal banks controlled by the House of Rothschild through their American agents, J. P. Morgan, and Kuhn, Loeb Co. These were also the six New York banks which bought the controlling stock in theFederal Reserve Bank of New York in 1914. They have held control of the stock ever since.

The Czar also had $115 million in four English banks. He had $35 million in the Bank of England, $25 million in Barings, $25 million in Barclays, and $30 million in Lloyd's Bank. In Paris, the Czar had $100 million in Banque de France, and $80 million in the Rothschild Bank of Paris. In Berlin, hehad $132 million in the Mendelsohn Bank, which had long been bankers to Russia. None of these sums has ever been disbursed; at compound interest since 1916, they amount to more than $50 billion. Two claimants later appeared, a son, Alexis, and a daughter, Anastasia. Despite a great deal of proof substantiating their claims, Peter Kurth notes in "Anastasia" that "Lord Mountbatten put up the money for court battles against Anastasia. Although he was Empress Alexandra's nephew, he was the guiding force behind Anastasia's opposition." The Battenbergs, or Mountbattens, were also related to the Rothschild family. They did not wish to see the Czar's fortune reclaimed and removed from the Rothschild banks.

Kurth also notes "In a 1959 series on the history of the great British banks, for example, the Observer of London remarked of Baring Brothers, 'The Romanovs were among their most distinguished clients. It is affirmed that Barings still holds a deposit of more than forty million pounds that was left them by the Romanovs. Anthony Sampson editor in chief, said no protests were made. This story is generally considered to be true."

In the early 19th century, the Rothschilds began to consolidate their profits from government loans into various business ventures, which have done very well. Fortuitous trading on the London Stock Exchange after Waterloo gave Nathaniel Mayer Rothschild a sizeable portion of the Consols which formed the bulk of the deposits of the Bank of England. Joseph Wechsberg notes in "The Merchant Bankers", "There is the Sun Alliance life insurance company, most aristocratic of all insurance companies, founded by Nathan Rothschild in 1824; Brinco, the British Newfoundland corp., founded by the British and French Rothschilds in l952;the Anglo-Americancorp, Bowater, Rio Tinto and others."

Control of World Gold Prices

Not only does the Bank Rate of the Bank of England affect the interest rates in other nations; the price of gold also plays a crucial role in the monetary affairs of nations, even if they are no longer on the gold standard. The dominant role played by the House of Rothschild in the Bank of England is augmented by another peculiar duty of the firm, the daily fixing of the world price of gold. The News Chronicle of Dec. 12, 1938 describes this ritual: "The story of the gold-fixing has often been told. How every weekday at 11 a.m. the representatives of five firms of bullion brokers and one firm ofrefiners meet at the office of Messrs Rothschild (except on Saturday) and there fix the sterling price of gold. There is, however, a great deal of activity which lies behind his final act—this centralization of the demand for, and the supply of gold in one office and the fixing of the price of gold on that basis. A price of gold is first suggested, probably by the representative of Messrs Rothschild, who also acts for the Bank of England and the Exchange Equalization Account."

The banking houses privileged to meet with the Rothschilds to set the world price of gold are known as "the Club of Five". In 1958, they were: N. M. Rothschild, Samuel Montagu, Mocatta and Goldsmid, Sharps Pixley, and Johnson, Matthey.

In 1961, the London Accepting Houses operating by approval of the Governor of the Bank of England were: Barings: Brown, Shipley; Arbuthnot Latham; Wm. Brandt's & Sons; Erlangers; Antony Gibbs & Co.; Guinness Mahon Hawkins; S. Japhet; Kleinwort & Sons; Lazard Bros.; Samuel Montagu; Morgan Grenfell; N. M. Rothschild; M. Samuel, J. Henry Schroder; and S. G. Warburg; These chosen firms rule the financial establishment in "the City" of London.

In 1961, the leading business groups in England were listed by Wm. M. Clarke as: 1. Morgan Grenfell Ltd. (Lord Bicester) the Peabody J. P. Morgan firm; 2. Jardine Mathieson; 3. Rothschild-Samuel-Oppenheimer, comprising Rio Tinto, British South Africa Co. Shell Petroleum, Brinco (British Newfoundland Corp.); 4. Lazard Brothers-Shell, English Electric, Canadian Eagle Oil; 5. Lloyd's Bank; 6. Barclay's Bank; 7. Peninsular & Orient Lines; 8. Cunard; 9. Midland Group Eagle Star-Higginson (Cavendish-Bentinck); 10. Prudential; 11. Imperial Chemical Industries; 12. Bowater; 13. Courtauld's; 14. Unilever.

Although this list shows the Rothschild group as only one of fourteen, in fact they hold large positions or influence in the other groups of this list.

In 1982, the principal directorships held by the London Rothschilds were: Lord Rothschild—N.M. Rothschild & Sons, Arcan N.V. Curacao, chmn Rothschilds Continuation, and Rothschild Inc. USA. Edmund Leopold de Rothschild—N.M. Rothschild & Sons, Alfred Dunhill Ltd., Rothschild Continuation, Rothschild Trust, Rothman's International, chmn Tokyo Pacific Holdings NV; Baron Eric Rothschild—N.M. Rothschild & Sons; Evelyn de Rothschild—chmn N.M. Rothschild & Sons, DeBeers Consolidated Mines Ltd. South Africa, Eagle Star Insurance Co., chmn The Economist Newspaper Ltd., IBM UK Ltd., La Banque Privee S.A., Manufacturers Hanover Ltd., Rothschild Continuation Ltd., chmn United Race Courses Ltd; Leopoldde Rothschild- N.M. Rothschild & Sons, Alliance Assurance Co., Bankof England, The London Assurance, Rothschild Continuation Ltd; Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG Switzerland, Sun Alliance and London Assurance Co., Sun Insurance Office Ltd.

The British firms comprising the major basis of the Rothschild fortune are: Sun Alliance Assurance, Eagle Star, DeBeers, and Rio Tinto. Eagle Star's directors include Duncan Mackinnon, of Hambro Investment Trust; Earl Cadogan, whose mother was a Hambro; Sir Robert Clark, chmn Hill Samuel Co.; Marquess Linlithgow (Charles Hope) whose mother was a Milner—he married Judith Baring; Evelyn de Rothschild; and Sir Ian Stewart of Brown Shipley Co., who has been parliamentary private secretary to the Chancellor of the Exchequer since 1979.

DeBeers directors include Harry F. Oppenheimer, Sir Philip Oppenheimer, A.E. Oppenheimer, N.F. Oppenheimer, Baron Evelyn de Rothschild, and Sidney Spiro. Spiro is also a director of Rio Tinto, Hambros Bank, Barclays Bank, and Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. DeBeers interlocks with Anglo-American Corp. of South Africa, of which Harry F. Oppenheimer is chairman, and Anglo- American Gold Investment Co. of which Julian Ogilvie Thompson is chairman, and Harry F. Oppenheimer director.

DeBeers interlocks with Hambros Bank, whose chmn is Jocelyn Hambro; directors are R.N. Hambro, C.E. Hambro, Hon. H.W. Astor, Sir Ian Morrow, chmn UKO Int. and The Laird Group, International Harvester, Rolls Royce, and the Brush Group; J.M. Clay, director of the Bank of England; Mark Weinberg, and Sidney Spiro.

Rio Tinto's chmn is Sir Anthony Tuke; he is also chmn Barclay's Bank, and member Trilateral Commission. Directors are Lord Shackleton, Lord Privy Seal, chmn RTZ Dev. Corp.; Lord Charteris of Amisfield, grandson of Earl of Wemys, married to daughter of Viscount Margesson, private secretary to Queen Elizabeth, director of Claridge's Hotel, and Connaught Hotel; Sir David Orr, chmn Unilever; and Sidney Spiro, Hambros Bank. The firm now trades as RTZ Corp. described as "a Rothschild holding company on mining deals which in July 1989 bought British Petroleum worldwide mining rights for $3.7 billion, the biggest ever private deal between two British companies."

The principal Rothschild firm is Sun Alliance Assurance, which Nathan Mayer Rothschild founded in 1824, with Sir Alex Baring, Samuel Gurney, and Sir Moses Montefiore, with an initial capital of five million pounds. Chmn of Sun Alliance is Lord Aldington (Toby Low) who is also chmn Westland Aircraft, director of Citibank, Citicorp, and Ge Ltd; Lord Aberconway, dep chmn; H. VA. Lambert, chmn Barclay's Bank; Earl of Crawford (Robert A. Lindsay, whose mother was a Cavendish—he is also chmn National Westminister Bank, former private secretary to the Secretary of Treasury. Minister of State for Defense, Minister of State for Foreign and Commercial Affairs; Lord Astor, whose mother was the daughter of Earl of Minto he is the former chairman of The Times; Sir Charles Ball, of Kleinwort Benson, also director of Chubb & Sons., Barclay's Bank, Cadbury Schweppe; Sir Alan Dalton, director Natl Westminster Bank; Duke of Devonshire (his mother was a Cecil, one of England's three ruling families since the Middle Ages; Sir Derek Holden-Brown, chmn Allied Breweries, director Hiram Walker; J.N.C. James, trustee Grosvenor Estates, which owns large sections of London; Henry Keswick, chmn Matheson & Co.; Lord Kindersley, exec, director of Lazard Bros., director of Marconi, English Electric, British Match, Swedish Match; Sir Peter Matthews, chmn Vickers; J.M. Ricchie, chmn British Enkalon, director of Vickers, Bowater Ltd.; Evelyn de Rothschild, chmn N.M. Rothschild & Sons.

The Rothschilds have had a large position in Vickers for many years. Chmn is Sir Peter Matthews, also director Lloyd's Bank and Sun Alliance; directors are T. Neville; Baron Braybrooke; Earl of Warwick (the Salisburys, one of three ruling families in England); Sir Alastair Frame, chief exec. Rio Tinto Zinc, director of Plessey & Co. UK, and the Atomic Energy Authority. Chmn of Vickers in 1956 was Edward Knollys, son of the private secretary to King Edward VII forty years, and George V 5 years.

Rothschild Connections in the U.S.A.

For more than a century, a widespread belief has been deliberately fostered in the United States that the Rothschilds were of little significance in the American financial scene. With this cover, they have been able to manipulate political and financial developments in this country to their own advantage. In 1837, the Rothschilds let their American representative, W.L. & M.S. Joseph, go bankrupt in the Crash, while they threw their cash reserves behind a newcomer, August Belmont, and their secret representative, George Peabody of London. Bermingham notes in "Our Crowd", "In the Panic of 1837, Belmont was able to perform a service which he would repeat in subsequent panics, thanks to the hugeness of the Rothschild reservoir of capital, to start out in America operating his own Federal Reserve System."

After 1837, August Belmont (Schonberg) was publicly advertised in the financial press as the American representative of the Rothschilds. When Belmont participated in a financial operation, everyone knew that the Rothschilds were involved. When Belmont took no part, and the transaction was handled by J.P. Morgan & Co., and or by Kuhn, Loeb Co., everyone "knew" that the Rothschilds were not involved.

George Peabody had established his business in England through his connection with Brown Bros, (now Brown Bros Harriman) and Brown, Shipley). He had become an unidentified agent for Lord Rothschild as early as 1835. Although there is no statue of George Peabody in the Wall Street area, there is one in London, just opposite theBank of England. George Peabodybecame "the favorite American" of Queen Victoria. His old lunchbox occupies a prominent place in the London office of Morgan Stanley to this day. By 1861, George Peabody had become the largest trader of American securities in the world. To put pressure on the Lincoln government, he began unloading them and driving prices down. At the same time, J.P. Morgan, allied with Morris Ketchum, was depleting the American gold supply by shipping it to England. He ran the price from $126 ounce to $171 ounce, reaping a good profit, and putting more financial pressure on the Lincoln government. This was one of many financial operations directed by the Rothschilds for their own political and financial goals. As George Peabody had no son to take over his firm, he took on Junius Morgan as partner; Junius' son John Pierpont Morgan, became known as "the most powerful banker in the world", although his principal role was to secretly carry out commissions for the House of Rothschild. Morgan was a dirct descendant of Alexander Hamilton, who had chartered our first central bank, the Bank of the United States, at the behest of Rothschild interests.

The New York Times, Oct. 26, 1907, noted in connection with J.P. Morgan's actions during the Panic of 1907, "In conversation with the New York Times correspondent, Lord Rothschild paid a high tribute to J. P. Morgan for his efforts in the present financial juncture in New York. 'He is worthy of his reputation as a great financier and a man of wonders. His latest action fills one with admiration and respect for him.'"

This is the only recorded instance when a Rothschild praised any banker outside of his own family.

On March 28, 1932, the New York Times noted, "London: N.M. Victor Rothschild,twenty-one-year-old nephew of Baron Rothschild, is going to the United States soon to take a post with J. P. Morgan & Co., it was learned tonight. It is usual for progressive British bankers to send their young men to western states temporarily, one of the most notable believers in the practice being the Anglo-American banking house of J.Henry Schroder & Co."

The Morgan-Rothschild connection explains the otherwise incomprehensible mystery of why J. P. Morgan, famed as "the most powerful banker in the world", left such a modest fortune at his death in 1913, a mere $11 million after his debts were secured. Although the present members of the Morgan family seem financially secure, none of them is counted among the "big rich".

In "Brandeis, A Free Man's Life", Arpheus T. Mason notes, "Young Adolph Brandeis (Justice Brandeis' father) arrived in New York, travelled for a while in the East and then went on to the Midwest. Young Brandeis' pleasure and facility in travel were greatly enhanced by the companionship of a young friend of the Wehles then on a business trip to the United States to secure information about American investments for the House of Rothschild. Thanks to his companion's contacts and letters of introduction, Adolph saw places and met people not accessible to most foreigners."

Bermingham notes in "Our Crowd", "In the autumn of 1874, Baron Rothschildsummoned Isaac Seligman to his office—some $55 million of U.S. Bonds were to be offered by three houses, the House of Seligrnan, the House of Morgan, and the House of Rothschild." This was the first time that the Seligmans had been asked to participate in an issue with the Rothschilds. They were more than grateful, and thus another ally of the Rothschilds began to operate in America.

A notable advantage of J. P. Morgan's work for the House of Rothschild was the carefully cultivated belief that Morgan, if not openly "anti-Semitic", avoided participating in operations with Jewish banking firms, and that his firm would not hire anyone of Jewish background. It was the same deception which Nathan Mayer Rothschild had hired Morgan's predecessor, George Peabody, to perform in London. It was a traditional belief on Wall Street that if you wished to deal with a "gentiles only" firm, you went to J. P. Morgan; if you wanted a Jewish firm, there were a number of houses available, but the most influential, by far, was Kuhn, Loeb Co. In either case, the customer was never made aware that he was dealing with an American representative of the House of Rothschild.

Jacob Schiff, who brought the Kuhn, Loeb firm to its preeminent role in American finance, was born in the Rothschild house at 148 Judengasse, Frankfort, which the Rothschilds shared with the Schiff family. In 1867, Abraham Kuhn and Solomon Loeb, two Cincinnati dry goods merchants, founded the banking house of Kuhn, Loeb. In 1875, Jacob Schiff arrived from Frankfurt tojoin the firm. He married Therese, Solomon's daughter. He also brought a large amount of Rothschild capital into the firm, enabling it to expand tenfold. In 1885, Loeb retired; Jacob Schiff ran the firm from 1885 to 1920, when he died.

At no time has the House of Rothschild ever indicated publicly that it had any interest in the firm of Kuhn, Loeb Co. George R. Conroy stated in TRUTH magazine, Boston, Dec. 16, 1912, "Mr. Schiff is head of the great private banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., which represents the Rothschild interests on this side of the Atlantic. He has been described as a financial strategist and has been for years the financial minister of the great impersonal power known as Standard Oil. He was hand-in-glove with the Harrimans, the Goulds and the Rockefellers in all their railroad enterprises and has become the dominant power in the railroad and financial world of America."

This is one more revelation of the hidden power of the Rothschild interests in America. Not only has it directed the Rockefeller enterprises from the time that National City Bank of Cleveland, a Rothschild bank, financed the early expansion of Rockefeller, South Improvement Co., which enabled him to crush his competitors through illegal railway rebates, but it has also been the power behind the scenes of the Harriman fortunes (now Brown Brothers Harriman). It explains the frequent appointments (never elections) of W. Averill Harriman, the dominant power in the Democratic Party, while his partner's son, George Bush, is the Republican president. It explains the secret writing of the Federal Reserve Act by Paul Warburg of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., and the even more secret deals which caused it to be enacted into law by Congress. It explains how the United States could fight World War I with Paul Warburg in charge of its banking system through the vice chairmanship of the Federal Reserve Board; Bernard Baruch as dictator of American industry as Chairman of the War Industries Board; and Eugene Meyer financing the war through his position as chairman of the War Finance Corporation (printing government bonds in duplicate); Kuhn, Loeb partner Sir William Wiseman with Col. House correlated British and American intelligence operations; Kuhn, Loeb partner Lewis L. Strauss was acting head of the U.S. Food Administration under Herbert Hoover. Meanwhile, Paul's brother, Max Warburg, headed the German espionage system; another brother was German commercial attache in Stockholm, traditional listening-post for warring nations, and Jacob Schiff had two brothers in Germany who were financing the German war effort. It was a classic case of a "managed conflict", with the Rothschilds manipulating both sides from behind the scenes. At the Versailles Peace Conference, Bernard Baruch was head of the Reparations Commission; Max Warburg, on behalf of Germany, accepted the reparations terms, while Paul Warburg, Thomas Lamont and other Wall Street bankers advised Wilson and the Dulles brothers on how "American" interests should be handled at this all-important diplomatic conference.

Milner and the Boer War

The Rothschilds had decided upon the formula of a "managed conflict" for the First World War because of the difficulty they had encountered in defeating the Boers from 1899 to 1901. After illegally annexing the Transvaal in 1881, the British had been turned back with a resounding defeat at Majuba by Paul Kruger. In 1889, because of the discovery of vast wealth in gold and diamonds in South Africa, the Rothschilds came back to loot the nation with 400,000 British soldiers pitted against 30,000 "irregulars", that is, farmers with rifles, whom the Boers could put into the field. The Boer War was started by Rothschild's agent, Lord Alfred Milner, against the wishes of a majority of the British people. His plans were aided by another Rothschild agent, Cecil Rhodes, who later left his entire fortune to the furtherance of the Rothschild program, through the Rhodes Trust, a by no means infrequent denouement among Rothschild agents, and the basis of the entire "foundation" empire today.

The British fought a "no prisoners", scorched earth war, destroying farms, and mercilessly shooting down Boers who tried to surrender. It was in this war that the institution of "concentration camps" was brought to the world, as the British rounded up and imprisoned in unsanitary, fever-ridden camps anyone thought to be sympathetic to the Boers, including many women and children, who died by the thousands. This genocidal policy would next be used by the Rothschild financed Bolsheviks in Russia, who adopted the Boer War concept to murder 66 million Russians between 1917 and 1967. There was never any popular reaction to either of these atrocities, because of the control of media which makes discussion of these calamities a taboo subject.

The career of Lord Alfred Milner (1854-1925) began when he was a protege of Sir Evelyn Baring, the first Earl of Cromer, partner of Baring Bros., bankers, who had been appointed Director General of Accounts in Egypt. Baring was then the financial advisor of the Khedive of Egypt. Since 1864, Milner had been active in the Colonial Society, founded in London in that year. In 1868, it was renamed the Royal Colonial Institute, and was heavily financed by Barclays Bank, and by the Barings, Sassoons and Jardine Mathieson, all of whom were active in founding the Hong Kong Shanghai Bank, and who were heavily interested in the Asiatic drug traffic. The staff economist of the Royal Colonial Society was Alfred Marshall, founder of the monetarist theory which Milton Friedman now peddles under the aegis of the Hoover Institution and other supposedly "righ-twing" think-tanks. Marshall, through the Oxford Group, became the patron of Wesley Clair Mitchell, who then taught Burns and Friedman.

In 1884, Milner augmented the work of the Royal Colonial Society with an inner group, the Imperial Federation League; both groups now function as the Royal Empire Society. Vladimir Halperin, in "Lord Milner and the Empire", writes, "It was through Milner and some of his friends that the Round Table Group came into being. The Round Table, it should be said, is an authority to this day on all Commonwealth interests." He states that Milner raised a considerable sum for the work of the Round Table, including 30,000 pounds from Lord Astor, 10,000 pounds from Lord Rothschild, 10,000 pounds from the Duke of Bedford, and 10,000 pounds from Lord Iveagh. Milner launched a magazine called the Empire Review, later called the Round Table quarterly.

Halperin also notes another contribution of Milner, "He played an important part in the drafting of the famous Balfour Declaration in December of 1917. It is a fact, that, with Balfour, he was its co-author. As far back, as 1915, Milner had realized the need for a Jewish National Home, and had never ceased to be warmly in favor of its creation. Milner, like Lloyd George, Amery, and many others, saw that the Jewish National Home could also contribute to the security of the Empire in the Near East."

The Milner Round Table later became the Royal Institute of International Affairs-Council on Foreign Relations combine which exercises unopposed control for the World Order over foreign and monetary policy in both the United States and Great Britain. Milner trained a group of ambitious young men who became known as his "Kindergarten". It included John Buchan, future Gov. Gen. of Canada, Geoffrey Dawson, later editor of the Times, and prominent supporter of "appeasement" with the "Cliveden Set" (led by Lord Astor, who owned the Times); Philip Kerr, 11th Marquess, Lord Lothian, the youngest member of the Kindergarten; he served as private secretary to Lloyd George from 1916-20, and was given credit as largely responsible for the German provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. His Who's Who goes on to say that he played an important part in dealing with India, all dominions, and the United States. He was Ambassador to the United States 1935-40, and was a close friend of Waldorf and Lady Astor; George Joachim Goschen, a Liberal who was hailed as the greatest Chancellor of the Exchequer, head of the Cunliffe Goschen banking house with Lord Cunliffe, Governor of the Bank of England. Goschen was also chancellor of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh; his brother, Baron Sir Edward Goschen was Ambassador to Berlin when Bethmann-Hollweg told him that the Belgian Treaty was a mere "scrap of paper;" Leopold S. Amery, who had two sons, Leopold, who was executed as a traitor in 1945, and Julian, who married Prime Minister Harold MacMillan's daughter, and served as leftwing correspondent on the Spanish Front 1938-9, Churchill's personal representative to Chiang Kai-Shek, 1945, Round Table Conference on Malta, 1955, Council of Europe, 195-56. The senior Leopold Amery is described as "a passionate advocate of British imperialism"; he was on the staff of the Times, and wrote a 7 vol. history of the South African War for the Times; served in the Cabinet from 1916-22,MP 1911-45, first Lord of Admiralty, 1922-24, Secretary of State for India, 194045, and arranged for India to have independence. He was a trustee of the Rhodes Trust.

The Milner-Rothschild relationship was described in Terence O'Brien's biography, "Milner", p. 97, "Milner went to Paris on some business with Alphonse de Rothschild . . .Business calls in the City included a formal visit to Rothschilds . . . weekend with Lord Rothschild at Tring, and visit with Edward Cecil, Lord Salisbury at Hatfield . . . while spending a weekend with Lord Rothschild at Tring a Press Lord gave him a sleepless night (no further explanation given) talks with Rothschild." Milner attended a Zionist dinner given by Lord Rothschild, sitting next to Lawrence of Arabia, who interpreted for him in a talk with King Feisal.

On p. 364, O'Brien notes, "Milner lost no time in recreating his links with the City. He went first to Rio Tinto which reelected him to its Board and before long Rothschild asked him to be its chairman." Rio Tinto was one of the key firms in the Rothschild empire. Herbert Hoover was also appointed a director of Rio~Tinto; he would soon be asked to head the "Belgian Relief Commission" which prolonged World War I from 1916 to 1918.

The Milner role in starting the South African War is described in "British Supremacy in South Africa". Chap. 1 is headed "Sir Alfred Milner's War, explained as follows: "On 19 March Chamberlain telegraphed to him, 'The principle object of His Majesty's Government in South Africa is peace. Nothing but a most flagrant offense would justify the use of force."' p. 22, "Milner had come to believe that war with the Transvaal was both inevitable and desirable. . . Milner had at last convinced Chamberlain that British supremacy in South Africa would be jeopardized unless the power of the Transvaal was broken." There is the evidence that Rothschild's Round Table minion, Milner, cold-bloodedly precipitated the Boer war for his master's gain.

John Hays Hammond, chief mining engineer for the House of Rothschild, also was sent to South Africa to precipitate the war. He formed the "Uitlanders Reform Committee", with Lionel Phillips, head of gold and diamond mining firm Eckstein-the Comer House; George Farrar of East Rand Property Mines; and Col. Frank Rhodes, brother of Cecil Rhodes. The Committee was financed by Abe Bailey, Solly Joel, Barney Barnato, and the Ecksteins, all of whom were big winners in the partition of the gold and diamond properties after the war. During this activity, Hammond was arrested by Paul Kruger, sentenced to death for promoting revolution, and was allowed to leave only after paying a $100,000 fine; he was then hired by the Guggenheims at $500,000 year salary, and in 1921 became chief lobbyist for the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington.

William III and the Bank of England

Like other enterprises with which the Rothschilds have been connected, the Bank of England has been a center of international intrigue and espionage since its founding in 1694. Although the Rothschilds did not become associated with the Bank until 1812, when Nathan Mayer Rothschild increased his fortune 6500 times by taking advantage of false rumors that somehow swept the London Stock Exchange, purporting that England had lost at Waterloo. The Bank of England originated in a revolution, when William III, Prince of Orange, drove King James II from the throne. Since the Bank of England Charter was granted by William in 1694, there has never been another revolt against the Crown. The royal family has been secure because the source of money, crucial to a revolution, has remained under control.

King Charles II had managed to retain a shaky position because of support from the Duke of Buckingham (George Villiers), and others whose first names formed the word "CABAL", introducing a new term for intrigue. His successor, James II, tried to placate the powerful lords of England, but even his long time supporters, scenting a change of power, began secret negotiations with the Prince of Orange. Wilhelm I, Prince of Orange, had been married several times, to Anne of Saxony, Charlotte de Bourbon, and Princess de Coligny. Today, every ruling house of Europe, as well as those out of power, is a direct descendant of King William, including Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, Margaretha, Queen of Denmark, Olaf V of Norway, Gustaf of Sweden, Constantine of Greece, Prince Rainier of Monaco, and Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, whose son married the daughter of C. Douglas Dillon.

Lord Shrewsbury (Charles Talbot) had been given places by both Charles II and James II; nevertheless, he played a leading role in the revolution. He took 12,000 pounds to Holland to support William in 1688, returned with him, and was made secretary of state. Sidney Godolphin, one of James II's last adherents, joined with the Duke of Sunderland and the Duchess of Portsmouth in correspondence with William prior to his invasion of England, and was appointed head of the treasury by William. Henry Compton, Earl of Northampton, and Bishop of London, had been removed by James II; he signed the invitation to William to come to England; he was reinstated in his see in 1688; his son Francis became Lord Privy Seal. John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough, had entered into negotiations with the Prince of Orange in Oct. 1687, and expressed his readiness to support him in Aug. 1688. To allay James II's suspicions, Marlborough then signed a renewed oath of fidelity to him Nov. 10, 1688. On Nov. 24, 1688, he joined the forces of William of Orange.

Although William had married Mary, the daughter of James II, and had a legitimate claim to the throne of England, he could not take power as long as James II was on the throne. Therefore, he entered England with a force of 10,000 foot soldiers and 4000 horse, a small force with which to conquer a great kingdom. With him were Churchill, Bentinck, (the first Earl of Portland), Earl of Shrewsbury, and Lord Polwarth, whose descendant is a prominent member of the Anglo-American banking establishment. James II fled to the court of Louis XIV and was declared abdicated.

This event was subsequently celebrated in English history as the "Glorious Revolution". King James II had married a Catholic, Mary of Modena,in 1673, and launched a campaign to return England to the Roman hierarchy, after more than one hundred years of Protestant rule. His two daughters were being brought up as Protestant, but he then bore a son, who was baptized as a Catholic, ensuing a Catholic heir to the throne. It was this situation which precipitated the Glorious Revolution. In 1688, James had an army of 40,000, all of whose officers were Roman Catholic. The invader, William, had only 13,000 men. To compound his problems, his ships were blown off course, and missed their landing target, James was informed that his troops, most of whom were Protestant, would not obey their Catholic officers, and that they would not defend him. He then abdicated to France. A subsequent attempt to make a comeback in Ireland also met with defeat, which initiated the "Troubles" which have continued there to this day.

As King of England, William signed a Declaration of Rights on February 13, 1689, which ended the king's power to suspend Parliament or to dispense with its laws. England was now a constitutional monarchy, a form which has endured to the present day. This agreement placed the monarchy on an annual salary, which had to be voted on by Parliament. The purse strings were now firmly in the hands of the legislators. In 1694, William chartered the Bank of England. Since that time, there has never been a revolution, because no political force in England was able to raise money to finance such a challenge.

In 1701, Parliament enacted the Act of Settlement, which banned the Catholic Stuarts from ever making a claim to the throne. Future monarchs must be members of the Anglican Church, and could not be married to a Catholic. Under this unified government, England experienced a great flowering of culture, hence the name, the Glorious Revolution. With the establishment of the Bank of England, enormous fortunes were created, and great estates were built throughout the country. William was succeeded by Queen Anne, who produced seventeen children, none of whom survived. Her staff plied her with rich food, so that she became very fat and suffered poor health. When she died, there were numerous claimants to the throne. The successful claimant, the Elector of Hanover, from Germany, bolstered his claim by the research of the scholar, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). Leibniz spent twenty years in the documentation of the Brunswick's family's claim, publishing his findings as Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus Hannoverae.

Leibniz had been secretary of the Rosicrucian Society in Nuremberg in 1667. He loyally served the Brunswick family of Hanover as a genealogist and historian. He documented that Elizabeth, the Protestant daughter of King James I, had married Frederick the Fifth, Elector of Palatine. Their daughter, Sophie, married Ernest Augustus, the first Elector of Hanover. Although she died before Queen Anne, her son, now Elector of Hanover, was able to overcome the other claimants because of Leibniz' carefully documented reports. Leibniz not only brought the Hanovers to England, but also Freemasonry. His Rosicrucian connections, which he shared with his English counterpart, Francis Bacon, placed a Freemason on the throne of England. Taking the name of George I, Hanover spoke no English, and indignantly refused to learn the language of his new domain.

Marlborough, ancestor of Winston Churchill (whose former daughter in law, Pam Harriman, is the leading power in the Democratic Party) is described in The Captain General, by Ivor Brown, "The Commissioner of Public Accounts found that the Duke of Marlborough had accepted gifts amounting to some 60,000 pounds from Antonio Machado and Sir Solomon de Medina, contractors for bread and wagons for the army abroad, and 2 1/2% of all money allotted for payment of troops, some 175,000 pounds (later revised to 350,000 pounds)." Marlborough claimed it had all been spent for intelligence, but witnesses testified he could not have spent more than 5000 pounds for this purpose in all of his campaigns. Donald Chandler's biography of Marlborough points out that "The bread contractors such as Solomon and Moses Medina, Mynheer Hecop, Solomon Abraham, Vanderkaa and Machado, were for the most part Spanish or Dutch Jews of varying reliability and venality." Chandler says that they consistently gave short weight or added sand to their corn sacks. For a number of years, Medina, as chief army contractor, contributed an annual commission of 6000 pounds a year to Marlborough as his rakeoff on army contracts.

In addition to his English supporters, who were previously loyal to King James II, William brought with him from Amsterdam the group of avaricious financiers who were also the suppliers of his armies. One of his first official acts was the conferring of knighthood on Solomon de Medina. Machado and Pereira provisioned his armies in Spain and Holland; Medina supplied Marborough in Flanders; Joseph Cortissot supplied Lord Galway in Spain, and Abraham Prado supplied the British army during the Seven Year War.

The most important act of William's reign was his granting of the charter of the Bank of England in 1694, although most of his biographers omit this salient fact. The concept of a central bank which would have the power of note issue, or issuing money, had already taken hold in Europe. The Bank of Amsterdam was started in 1609; its members aided William in his conquest of England. The Bank of Hamburg was chartered in 1619; the Bank of Sweden began the practice of issuing notes in 1661. These banks were chartered by financiers whose ancestors had been bankers in Venice and Genoa. As the tide of world power shifted northward in Europe, so did the financiers. The Warburgs of Hamburg had begun as the Abraham del Banco family, the largest bankers in Venice.

An interesting technique is revealed by the Charter of the Bank of England—it was slipped through as part of a tonnage bill, which was later to become a recognized parliamentary technique. The Charter provides that "rates and duties upon tonnage of ships are made security to such persons as shall voluntarily advance the sum of 1,500,000 pounds towards carrying on the war against France."

Other European banks, such as the Banks of Genoa, Venice and Amsterdam, were primarily banks of deposit, but the Bank of England began the practice of coining its own credit into money, the beginning of the monetarist movement. The Bank of England soon created a "new class" of moneyed interests in the City, as opposed to the power of the old barons, whose fortunes derived from their landholdings. Of the five hundred original stockholders, four hundred and fifty lived in London. This was the dawn of the pre-eminence of the "City", now the world's leading financial center. For this reason, the Rothschilds identified their key American banks with the code word "City".

Early descriptions of the shareholders of the Bank of England identify them as "a Society of about 1300 persons". They included the King and Queen of England, who received shares to the value of 10,000 pounds each; Marlborough, who invested 10,000 pounds—he also invested large sums from his "commissions" in the East India Co. in 1697, and later became Governor of the Hudson Bay Company, which paid a 75% dividend; Lord Shrewsbury, who invested 10,000 pounds; Godolphin, who invested 7000 pounds—he predicted that the B ank of England would not only finance trade, but would carry the burden of her wars, which was proven true in the next three hundred years. Virginia Cowles writes, in "The Great Marlborough", "England emerged from the war as the dominant force, because the Bank of England's credit system enabled her to bear the burden of war without undue strain."

Other charter subscribers were William Bentinck, later the first Earl of Portland; he had been apage in William of Orange's household, accompanied William to England in 1670 on his initial visit, handled the delicate negotiations of his marriage with Mary in 1677, and prepared the details of William's invasion of England. He was given the title of Earl of Portland, and became the most trusted agent of Williams foreign policy. In 1984, we find the 9th Duke, CavendishBentinck, is chmn of Bayers UK Ltd, and Nuclear Chemie Mittchorpe GMBH, Germany; he also had a distinguished career in foreign service, joining the Foreign Office in 1922; he represented England at the successive Paris, Hague and Locarno conferences, was chmn Joint Intelligence for the Chiefs of Staff 1939-45, and Ambassador to Poland during the critical years of 1945-47, when that country was turned over to the Soviet Union, with England's surreptitious support.

Other charter subscribers to the Bank of England were the Duke of Devonshire (William Cavendish) who built Chatsworth; he also had signed the invitation to William to assume the throne of England; he was High Steward at Anne's Coronation in 1702, and was said to lead a profligate private life—(the present duke sold seven drawings in July 1984 for $9.2 million) the 11th Duke married Deborah FreemanMitford daughter of Baron Redesdale—his present brother- in-law, Baron Redesdale, is vice president of Chase Manhattan Bank; the Duke of Leeds, Sir Thomas Osborne, who also signed the invitation to William—he was lord high treasurer and had arranged the marriage of Mary—he was later impeached for receiving a large bribe to procure the charter of the East India Co. in 1691—because of his favored position at court the proceedings were never concluded, and he left one of the largest fortunes in England; Earl of Pembroke, (Thomas Herbert), who became the first lord of the admiralty, and later lord privy seal; Earl of Carnarvon, who is also Earl of Powis and Earl of Bradford; Lord Edward Russell, created Earl of Oxford 1697; he had joined the service of William in 1683, was appointed treasurer of the Navy 1689, first lord of admiralty 1696-17, and lord justice 1697-1714 (Sir Robert Walpole, the famed British leader, was created Earl of Orford in the second creation); William Paterson, usually credited with being the founder of the bank of England—he was forced out within a year; Sir Theodore Janssen, who in vested 10,000 pounds; Dr. Hugh Chamberlen; John Asgill, an eccentric writer and pampheleteer; Dr. Nicholas Barbon, son of Praisegod Barebones, who started the first insurance company in Great Britain: John Holland, a reputed Englishman who also started the Bank of Scotland in 1695; Michael Godfrey, who died at Namur, Belgium on his way to Antwerp to establish a branch of the Bank of England—he was the first deputy governor of the Bank of England, and nephew of Sir Edward Godfrey, who was murderedby Titus Oakes in 1678; Sir John Houblon and twenty members of his family were also early stockholders; Sir John became lord of the admiralty, and Lord Mayor of London; his brother James was deputy governor of the Bank of England; Salomon de Medina, later knighted by William III; Sir William Scawen; Sir Gilbert Heathcote, director of Bank of England 1699-1701, and from 1723-25; he was Sheriff and later Lord Mayor of London, founded the New East India Co. in 1693; his parsimony was ridiculed by Alexander Pope in his quatrains; Sir Charles Montague, first Earl of Halifax, and Chancellor of the Exchequer—the present Earl is a director of Hambros Bank; Marquess Normandy, John Sheffield, also held the title of Duke of Buckingham- he is buried in Westminster Abbey; Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, comptroller of the royal household; Charles Chaplin; and the philosopher, John Locke.

In his "The Bank of England, A History", Sir John Clapham notes that by 1721, a number of Spanish and Portuguese Jews had been buying stock in the Bank of England—Medina, two Da Costas, Fonseca, Henriquez, Mendez, Nunes, Roderiquez, Salvador Teixera de Mattos, Jacob and Theodore Jacobs, Moses and Jacob Abrabanel, Francis Pereira. Clapham notes that since 1751 there has been very little trading in Bank of England stock; it has been very closely held for more than two centuries.

Bank of the United States

The Bank of England has played a prominent role in American history—without it, the United States would not exist. The American colonists considered themselves loyal Englishmen to a man, but when they began to enjoy unequalled prosperity by printing and circulating their own Colonial scrip, the stockholders of the Bank of England went to George III and informed him that their monopoly of interest-bearing notes in the colonies was at stake. He banned the scrip, with the result that there was an immediate depression in the commercial life of the Americas. This was the cause of the Rebellion; as Benjamin Franklin pointed out, the little tax on tea, amounting to about a dollar a year per American family, could have been borne, but the colonists could not survive the banning of their own money.

The Bank of England and the Rothschilds continued to play a dominant role in the commercial life of the United States, causing panics and depressions for the Rothschilds whenever their officials were instructed to do so. When the Second Bank of the United States expired in 1836, and President Jackson refused to renew it, creating great prosperity in the United States when government funds were deposited in other banks, the Rothschilds punished the upstarts by causing the Panic of 1837. As Henry Clews writes, "Twenty-Eight Years on Wall Street", p. 157, "The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by the Bank of England when it in one day threw out all the paper connected with the United States."

By refusing to credit American notes and stocks, the Bank of England created financial panic among the holders of that paper. The panic enabled Rothschild's agents, Peabody and Belmont, to reap a fortune in buying up depreciated stocks during the panic.

The Bank of England has played a prominent role in wars, revolutions, and espionage, as well as business panics. When Napoleon escaped from Elba in 1815, the London gold market jumped overnight from 4 lb.6 to 5 lb.7. The leading buyer was Nathan Mayer Rothschild, who was under orders from the British Treasury to dispatch gold to the Duke of Wellington, grouping to stop Napoleon. After Waterloo, the price of gold dropped.

During the twentieth century, the most important name at the Bank of England was Lord Montague Norman. His grandfather, George Warde Norman, had been governor of the Bank of England from 1821-1872, longer than any other man; his other grandfather, Lord Collet, was Governor of the Bank of England from 1887-89, and managing partner of Brown Shipley Co. in London for twenty-five years. In 1894, Montague Norman was sent to New York to work in the offices of Brown Bros.; he was befriended by the W.A. Delano family, and lived with the Markoe family, partners of Brown Bros. In 1907, Norman was elected to the Court of the Bank of England. In 1912, he had a severe nervous breakdown, and was treated by Jung in Switzerland. He became deputy governor of the Bank of England in 1916, and later served until 1944 as Governor.

The Wall Street Journal wrote of him in 1927, "Mr. M. Collet Norman, the Governor of the Bank of England, is now head and shoulders above all other British bankers. No other British banker has ever been as independent and supreme in the world of British finance as Mr. Norman is today. He has just been elected Governor for the eighth year in succession. Before the war, no Governor was allowed to hold office for more than two years; but Mr. Norman has broken all precedents. He runs his Bank and his Treasury as well. He appears to have no associations except his employees. He gives no interviews. He leaves the British financial world wholly in the thick as to his plans and ideas."

The idea that one individual ran the Bank of England to suit himself, with no influences, is too ridiculous to be considered. What about the Rothschilds? What about the other shareholders? Carroll Quigley, in "Tragedy and Hope" notes that "M. Norman said, 'I hold the hegemony of the currency.'—He is called the currency dictator of Europe." Lionel Fraser of J.Henry Schroder Wagg notes in his autobiography, "All to the Good", that he was in charge of Lord Norman's personal investments. He also notes of the firm of Helbert Wagg, former jewelers from Halberstadt and now a London banking house (later J.Henry Schroder Wagg), "The firm was official brokers on Stock Exchange to the great and all powerful House of Rothschild." Both Wagg and Schroder had been in business in London for 159 years when they merged in 1960. Another writer notes that Lord Norman frequently consulted with J. P. Morgan before making his Bank of England decisions. Gordon Richardson, chairman of J.Henry Schroder from 1962-72, then became Governor of the Bank of England from 1972-83, when he was succeeded by Robert Leigh-Pemberton, chmn of the National Westminister Bank, also director of Equitable—he married into the Cecil-Burghley family.

The present directors of the Bank of England are: G. W. McMahon, deputy governor since 1964, economic analyst Treasury 1953-57, adviser British Embassy Washington 1957-60; Sir Adrian Cadbury, chmn Cadbury Schweppes, dir. IBM UK; Leopold de Rothschild, N.M. Rothschild & Sons etc; George V. Blunden, exec. dir. Bank of England since 1947, served with IMF 1955-58; A.D. Lochnis, dir. J.Henry SchroderWagg; G. A. Drain, member Trilateral Commission, treasurer European Movement, Franco-British Council, British North American Committee, lawyer for many unions and health associations; Sir Jasper Hollom, has been on the board since 1936; D.G. Scholey, chmn S.G.Warburg Co.,Orion Insurance,Union Discount of London, Mercury Securities, which now owns S.G. Warburg Co. Irwin Holdings; J.M. Clay, dep. chmn Hambros Bank, chmn Johnson and Firth Brown Ltd; Hambros Life Assurance; Sir David Steel, chmn British Petroleum, dir. Kuwait Oil Co., The Wellcome Trust, trustee The Economist (whose chmn is Evelyn de Rothschild); Lord Nelson of Stafford, chmn GE Ltd. chmn Royal Worcester Co., Natl Bank of Australasia, International Nickel, British Aircraft, English Electric, Marconi Ltd. chmn World Power Conference, Worshipful Co. of Goldsmiths, Middle Eastern Assn; Lord Weir, chmn The Weir Group, chmn Great Northern Investment Trust; E.A.J. George, exec, dir Bank of England, dir. Gilt-Edged Division Bank of England, IMF 1972-72, Bank for International Settlements 1966-69; Sir Hector Laing, chmn United Biscuit,Allied Lyons, Royal Insurance; Sir Alastair Pilkington, chmn Pilkington Bros. Glass, dir. British Petroleum, British Railways Board.

The Bank of England also dominates the Bank of Scotland, whose chmn is Robert Bruce, Lord Balfour; his title Balfour of Burleigh was created in 1607; he is manager of English Electric and Viking Oil; he married the daughter of magnate E.S. Manasseh. Directors of Bank of Scotland include Lord Clydesmuir, also dir. Barclays Bank, and Rt. Hon. Lord Polwarth, director of Halliburtons, which interlocks with the Rothschild First City Bank of Houston and Citibank, Imperial Chemical Industries, Canadian Pacific, and Brown and Root Wimpey Highland Fabricators, which interlocks with George Wimpey PLC, largest construction firm in the British Empire, whose 44 companies have revenues of 1.2 billion pounds per year. Lord Polwarth's daughter married Baron Moran, High Commissioner of Canada, who previously served as Ambassador to Hungary and to Chad; Baron Moran's daughter married Baron Mountevans, manager of Consolidated Goldfields.

Directors of George Wimpey PLC included S.S. Jardine; Viscount Hood, who is chmn Petrofina UK, and director J.Henry Schroder Wagg, and Union Miniere; and Sir Joseph Latham, chmn Ariel International, director Deutsches Kreditbank.

Wimpey Co. interlocks with Schroder Ltd, parent of J.Henry Schroder Wagg. The Earl of Airlie (David Ogilvy) is chmn of Schroder; he married Virginia Ryan, grand-daughter of Otto Kahn and Thomas Fortune Ryan; The Earl is also director of Royal Bank of Scotland; directors of Schroder include Lord Franks, director of the Rockefeller Foundation, the Rhodes Trust, and Kennedy Center; he is a former Ambassador to the United States; G.W. Mallinkrodt; Sir E.G. Woodruffe of Unlever; and Daniel Janssen of the Bank of England.

The 'Disarmament Hoax'

One of the great Rothschild hoaxes was the "disarmament movement" of the early 1930s. The idea was not to disarm, but to persuade the nations to junk what arms they had so they could later be sold new ones. "The merchants of death", as they were popularly known in those days, were never more than errand boys for their true masters, "the bankers of death", or, as they were also known, "the Brotherhood of Death". In 1897, Vickers, in which Rothschilds had the largest holding, bought Naval Construction and Armament Co., and Maxim Nordenfeldt Guns & Ammunition Co. The new Vickers- Maxim Co. was able to test its products i n the Spanish- American War, which was set off by J & W Seligman Co. to obtain the white gold, (sugar), of Cuba; the Boer War of 1899-1901, to seize the gold and diamond fields of the Witwatersrand, and the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, designed to weaken the Czar and make the Communist Revolution inevitable. These three wars provided the excuse for tooling up for the mass production of World Wars I and II. In 1897, an international power trust was formed, consisting of DuPont, Nobel, Koln, and Rottweiler, which divided the world into four distinct sales territories.

The chmn of Vickers, Sir Herbert Lawrence, was director of Sun Assurance Office Ltd; Sun Life Assurance, and chmn the London committee of the Ottoman Bank; directors included Sir Otto Niemeyer, director of the Bank of England, and the Anglo International Bank; S.Loewe, the German arms magnate, Loewe & Co.; Sir Vincent Caillard President of the Ottoman Debt Council, financial expert on the Near East; and Sir Basil Zaharoff, the "mystery man of Europe".

The highwater mark of "the merchants of death" hoax was reached in the Nye Committee Hearings of 1934, copies of which are invariably missing in government libraries. Alger Hiss was investigator and counsel for the Committee. Typical was Chairman Nye's questioning of Mr. Carse of the Electric Boat Co. (a subsidiary of Vickers): "ChmnNYE: In 1917, Mr. Carse, you drafted a letter to help Zaharoff avoid paying income tax on your commissions to him of $766,852. There is Exhibit 24, a letter dated Sept. 21, 1917, addressed to Mr. H.C. Sheridan, Washington, D.C. Who is Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Carse? CARSE: He owns the Hotel Washington. At that time he was the agent of Vickers Ltd. in this country, and he was also a representative of Zaharoff. Mr Sheridan handled Mr. Zaharoff s income tax with White and Case. CHMN: Did you know that this was false, that this omission of a million dollars referred to was actually Sir Basil Zaharoff's income? CARSE: No, I did not know anything about Zaharoff's income. CHMN: But you have told us that a letter by Zaharoff six weeks earlier that 82,000 francs he received was his own personal income. CARSE: I do not know what Zaharoff did in his business. He did not tell me. CHMN: Did Zaharoff succeed in escaping the payment of income tax to the United States? CARSE: I believe there was some settlement made. Sheridan handled it. . . Zaharoff was never a stockholder insofar as I ever knew. The men who handle very large stock do not put the stock in their own names. CHMN: Zaharoff wrote to you 19 May, 1925, 'I desire no thanks for what I have done, because I am bound to attend to the interest of my firm of Vickers and the Electric Boat Co. in both of which I am a stockholder.' CARSE: I know he told me that, but I was never able to trace anything.

Sen. Clark then pursued questioning on how the armaments firms and oil companies promoted wars: "CLARK: So this whole occasion of arming Peru, and of the revolution in Bolvia on the basis of arming against Chile was based on erroneous rumor? MR. SPEZAR: That is my impression. CLARK: You wanted to interest the large oil companies in financing an armament program for South America. CARSE: I was willing to present any proposition the government might approve with regard to any oil companies which might be interested."

The Nye Committee frequently came back to Zaharoff's activities, referring to him as "a kind of super-spy in high social and influential circles". For many years he exercised great influence on Prime Minister Lloyd George of England. Zaharoff, who began his career as a brothel tout and underworld tough, arranged for Lloyd George to have an affair with Zaharoff's wife. Arthur Maundy Gregory, an associate of Lloyd George, was also a Zaharoff agent. Maundy Gregory for many years regularly peddled peerages in London clubs; knighthoods, not hereditary, were 10,000-12,000 lbs.; baronetcies went for as high as 40,000 lb., of which he paid Lloyd George a standard 5000 lb. each. Maundy Gregory ws also closely associated with Sir Basil Thompson in British counter-espionage. Zaharoff, who was born in 1851 in Constantinople, married one Emily Ann Burrows of Knightsbridge. Maundy Gregory then introduced Emily Ann to the insatiable Lloyd George. From that time on, he was at Zaharoff s mercy. Although Zaharoff was closely associated with Lloyd George throughout World War I until 1922, when their association effectively ended Lloyd George's political career, the name Zaharoff appears nowhere in Lloyd George's extensive Memoirs. Lloyd George's political career came to an end after Zaharoff persuaded him to help the Greeks against Turkey in 1920, a disastrous adventure which brought about Lloyd George's downfall from political power. George Donald McCormick, in "The Mask of Merlin", the definitive work on Lloyd George, states, "Zaharoff kept him (Lloyd George) closely informed on the Balkans. During the war, Zaharoff was sent on various secret missions by Lloyd George. The Big Three, Wilson, Lloyd George and Clemenceau, met in Zaharoff s home in Paris. On one occasion, Zaharoff went to German (in 1917) on Lloyd George's personal instructions, disguised in the uniform of a Bulgarian Army doctor. Clemenceau later said, 'The information which Zaharoff secured in Germany for Lloyd George was the most important piece of intelligence of the whole war.'" Zaharoff was awarded the Order of British Empire in 1918 for this mission. McCormick also notes, "Zaharoff had interests in Briey furnaces of the Comite des Forges. Throughout the war no action was taken against Briey or nearby Thionville, a German area vital to the German army. Orders to bombard Briey were cancelled on orders of Zaharoff. "M. Barthe protested this event in a speech to the French Parliament January 24, 1919.

McCormick found that Zaharoff had made some interesting confessions to close associates. He boasted to Rosita Forbes, "I made wars so that I could sell arms to both sides." He offered astute political advice to Sir Robert Lord Boothby, "Begin on the left in politics, and then, if necessary, work over to the right. Remember it is sometimes necessary to kick off the ladder those who have helped you to climb it."

In addition to his Vickers and Electric Boat stock, Zaharoff had large holdings in other armaments manufacturers, Krupp and Skoda. The Skoda Works of Czechoslavakia were controlled by the powerful Schneider family of Schneider-Creusot, headed by Eugene Schneider, whose grand-daughter married the present Duke of Bedford. The Nye Committee found that Vickers interlocked with Brown Boveri of Switzerland, Fokker, Banque Ottomane, Mitsui, Schneider, and ten other armaments firms around the world. Vickers set up a torpedo manufacturing firm, Societe Francasies des Torpilles Whitehead, with the former Whitehead Co., whose owner, James B. Whitehead, then became English Ambassador to France. Frau Margareta von Bismarck was a director of Societe Francasies, as was Count Edgar Hoyos of Fiume.

At its peak in the 1930s, the Vickers network included Harvey Steel, Chas. Cammell & co. ship-building, John Brown & Co., Krupp and Dillinger of Germany, Terni Co. of Italy, Bethehem Steel and Electric Boat in the U.S., Schneider, Chatillon Steel, Nobel Dynamite Trust, and Chilworth Gunpowder Co. The trustee for the debentures of the armaments firms was Royal Exchange Assurance Co. of London, of which E. Roland Harriman of Brown Bros Harriman was a director.

As First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill obligingly changed the fuel of the entire English fleet from coal to oil, as a favor to the Samuel family which owned Royal Dutch Shell.

The most revealing works on the armaments dealers, the Nye Committee Hearings, and "Merchants of Death" are now fifty years old. On p. 167 of "Merchants" we find that "The Societe Miniere de Penarroya controls the most important lead mines of the world, accounting for one-eighth of the world's production. Since 1833 the C French bankers, the Rothschilds, have controlled these mines, but in 1909 the Rothschild Bank entered into an alliance with the Metallgeschaft of Frankfurt, the company in which both the Kaiser and Krupp were heavily interested. This company remained under German and French control for about two years of the war. At the outbreak of hostilities, 100,000 tons of lead were shipped from these mines to Germany, via Switzerland. When shipments to France were resumed, the price was raised to such an extent that it more than doubled the price which the English paid for their lead. Free trade between Germany and France in important chemicals, for powder, etc. continued; the Swiss supplied both sides with electric power. All along their frontier great power-houses sprang into being, facing Germany from Italy, producing iron, bauxite, chemicals and power. Zeiss products were exported to Britain throughout the war."

Dr. Ellis Powell told an audience at Queens Hall, London, March 4, 1917; "At the beginning of the war many thousands of German reservists were allowed to return to Germany although our Fleet could have stopped them. German individuals, firms and companies went on trading merrily in British names, collecting their debts, and indirectly, no doubt, financing German militarism. At the very moment when Germans were destroying our property by Zeppelin bombs we were actually paying them money instead of taking their holdings as part compensation for damage done. In January 1915 came the vicious decision by Lord Reading (Rufus Isaacs) and the Appeal Court, according to which the Kaiser and Little William Co. was a good British company, capable of suing the King's own subjects in the King's own courts. . . The uninterrupted activity in this country of the Frankfort Metal Octopus is not an accident. . . Let me analyze one lurid case, which has stirred public indignation and anger to its depths. I mean the impudent survival of the German banks. We have now been at war nearly three years. Yet their doors are still open. They sent large quantities of bullion to Germany after the war started."

World War I: The Bankers War

There was a remarkable amount of goodwill and free trade continuing during World War I among the warring nations. Of course the Americans did not wish to be left out of the great outpouring of goodwill in which forty million people were killed. It was not enough that the Americans were financing the war through their Federal Reserve System and the personal income tax, which, as Cordell Hull so aptly put it in his Memoirs, "had been passed in the nick of time" before the outbreak of the war; nor was it enough that the Americans were feeding the "Belgians", actually the Germans, through the Belgian Relief Commission, so that the war could be prolonged until the United States became a belligerent. Concerned Americans dedicated themselves to the proposition that American boys should be killed in the trenches with the British, the French, the Germans and other nationalities.

The warmongers set up three principal organizations to force the United States into World War I—the Council on National Defense, the Navy League, and the League to Enforce Peace. The Council on National Defense was authorized by act of Congress August, 1916, although there was no nation on earth known to be contemplating any attack on the United States. Pancho Villa had led a small group of bandits against Columbus, N.M., but this raid was hardly an occasion for national mobilization. It was a retaliatory strike because of the actions of New York bankers in Mexico—the Warburgs held the bonds of the National Railways of Mexico; George F. Peabody and Eugene Meyer and Cleveland H. Dodge owned the copper mines of Mexico; Seligman & Co. owned Electric Power and Light of Mexico. The Mexican Revolution was an uprising against President Porfirio Diaz, who had collaborated profitably with the Warburgs and Rockefellers for years. Percy N. Furber, president of the Oil Fields of Mexico Ltd. told C.W. Barron, "The Mexican Revolution was really caused by H. Clay Pierce, who owned 35% of Pierce-Waters Oil Co.; Standard Oil owned the other 65%. He wanted to get my property. He demanded of Diaz that he should take off the taxes on oil imports so that Standard Oil could bring in products from the U.S., Diaz refused." Furber said that he put up the money for Francisco Madero to oust Diaz. Madero was then murdered by Victoriano Huerta, the pawn of Lord Cowdray, head of British oil interests in Mexico. In the resulting chaos, Villa and Zapata came to the fore, resulting in the Columbus raid.

The Council on National Defense was chaired by Daniel Willard, pres. B & O RR; other members were Bernard Baruch, Julius Rosenwald, Samuel Gompers, Walter S. Gifford, pres. of ATT, alsodirectorCommission on Industrial Preparedness; Hollis Godfrey, pres. of Drexel Institute, married to a Lawrence of Boston; and Howard Coffin, pres. of Hudson Motor Car Co. Coffin's secretary, Grosvenor Clarkson, ran the Council. Godfrey claims in Who's Who that the Council was actually created by himself, Howard Coffin and Elihu Root.

The principals of the Navy League were J.P. Morgan of U.S. Steel, Charles Schwab of Bethlehem Steel, Col. R.M. Thompson of International Nickel, and B.F. Tracy, attorney for the Carnegie Steel Co. The principals of the League to Enforce Peace were Elihu Root, J.P. Morgan's lawyer; Lincoln Filene; Oscar Straus; John Hays Hammond, who had been sentenced to death for revolutionary activity in South Africa; Isaac Seligman; Perry Belmont, the official representative of the Rothschilds, and Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. The watchword of these millionaire bakers was "preparedness", and Asst. Sec of the Navy Franklin Delano Roosevelt was already letting large Navy contracts in 1916, a year before we got into the war.

Col. House wrote to President Wilson from London on May 29, 1914, "Whenever England consents, France and Russia will close in on Germany and Austria."

While preparing for war, Woodrow Wilson campaigned in 1916 on the slogan, "He kept us out of war". H.C. Peterson notes in "Propaganda for War", Univ. Oklahoma Press, 1939, "To a large extent, the 9 million people who voted for Wilson did so because of the phrase, 'He kept us out of war.'" Col. House later told Viereck that Wilson had concluded an agreement with the British in 1916, long before his campaign, to involve us in the war. Roosevelt repeated the process in 1939.

When we went into World War I, Wilson appointed his campaign fundraiser, Bernard Baruch, head of the War Industries Board. Baruch was later investigated by the Graham Committee. He testified, "I probably had more power than perhaps any other man did in the war; doubtless that is true." He said of his prewar actions, "I asked for an interview with the President. I explained to him as earnestly as I could that I was deeply concerned about the necessity of the mobilisation of the industries of the country. The President listened very attentively and graciously, as he always does, and the next thing I heard, some months afterward, my attention was brought to this Council of National Defense."

"MR. GRAHAM: Did the President express any opinion about the advisability of adopting the scheme you proposed? BARUCH: I think I did most of the talking. GRAHAM: Did you impress him with your belief that we were going to get into the war? BARUCH: I probably did. GRAHAM: That was your opinion at the time? BARUCH: Yes. I thought we were going to get into the war. I thought a war was coming long before it did. MR. JEFFRIES: Then the system you did adopt did not give the Lukens Steel & Iron Co. the amount of profit that the low-producing companies did? BARUCH: No, but we took 80% away from the others. MR. JEFFRIES: The law did that, didn't it? BARUCH: The government did that. GRAHAM: What did you mean by the use of the word 'we'? BARUCH: The government did that Excuse me, but I meant we, the Congress. GRAHAM : You meant that the Congress passed a law covering that. BARUCH: Yes, sir. GRAHAM: Did you have anything to do with that? BARUCH: Not a thing. GRAHAM: Then I would not use the word 'we' if I were you."

Although Baruch played a crucial role in funding Wilson's campaign, in 1916, he had not ignored Wilson's almost successful opponent, Charles Evans Hughes. Carter Field points out, in his biography of Baruch, "My personal view is that Baruch would have been tremendously important in the Hughes election, if Hughes had been elected in the close election of 1916, both in the conduct of the war and in the making of the peace." Field continues, "Under this curious cloak of anonymity, Baruch exercised a very unusual type of political power in those early Wilson days. He was cultivated by most of the Wilson lights, who speedily found out that he could do more for them than they could do by directly appealing to Wilson. Naturally, there was no publicity for all this."

Field also says, "For one thing, Wilson not only loved Baruch, he ADMIRED him. Mrs. Wilson makes this specific statement in her Memoirs."

Wilson's relations with others were not always marked by such deep affection. David Lawrence, in his biography of Wilson, "The True Story of Woodrow Wilson", notes that in June, 1907, former President Grover Cleveland, a trustee of Princeton, publicly denounced Wilson's plans to alter the character of the school, making a "bitter attack". Cleveland had come to live in Princeton after he left the White House, and was deeply attached to the university. He died in the summer of 1908. That fall, when Wilson, as president of the school, made his annual opening speech, he made no mention of Cleveland's death, nor did he ever schedule a memorial exercise, as was the custom when a trustee passed away.

The Baruch—War Industries Board is particularly important to the present work, not only because of the dictatorial power exercised by Baruch during the war years, but because the WIB members have continued to govern the United States. From WIB and the American Commission to Negotiate the Peace came the Brookings Institution, which set national priorities for fifty years, NRA and the entire Roosevelt administration, and World War II. Working with Baruch at the WIB was his asst. chairman, Clarence Dillon of Dillon, Read; Robert S. Brookings, chmn Price Fixing Committee of WIB, later founded the Brookings Institution; Felix Frankfurter, chmn of the War Policies Labor Board; Herbert Hoover and T.F. Whitmarsh of the U.S. Food Administration; H.B. Swope, publicity agent for Baruch; Harrison Williams; Albert Ritchie, later Gov. of Maryland; Gen. Goethals; and Rear Adm. F.F. Fletcher. Goethals was replaced by Gen. Pierce, who was then replaced by Gen. Hugh Johnson, who became Baruch's righthand man for many years. Field tells us that "Gen. Hugh Johnson stayed on Baruch's payroll for two months after he became head of NRA (during the New Deal.)" Field quotes Woodrow Wilson as having Baruch at the WIB, "Let the manufacturer see the club behind your door." Baruch told the Graham Committee, "We fixed prices with the aid of potential Federal compulsion."

Left out in the Baruch-Wilson mutual esteem society was William Jennings Bryan, longtime head of the Democratic Party. Bryan not only opposed our entry into World War II—he dared to criticise the family which had organized the war, the Rothschilds. Because he dared to mention the Rothschilds, Bryan was promptly denounced as "anti-Semitic". He responded, "Our opponents have sometimes tried to make it appear that we were attacking a race when we denounced the financial policy of the Rothschilds. But we are not; we are as much opposed to the financial policy of J. P. Morgan as we are to the financial policy of the Rothschilds."

Because of the secret planning needed to launch a major war, control of the communications media was essential. Kent Cooper, president of the Associated Press, notes in Life, Nov. 13, 1944, "Freedom of Information", "Before and during the First World War, the great German news agency Wolff was owned by the European banking house of Rothschild, which had its central headquarters in Berlin. A leading member of the firm was also kaiser Wilhem's personal banker (Max Warburg). What actually happened in Imperial Germany was that the Kaiser used Wolff to bind and excite his people to such a degree that they were eager for World War I. Twenty years later under Hitler the pattern was repeated and enormously magnified by DNB, Wolffs successors."

Cooper later noted in his autobiography, "Barriers Down", "international bankers under the House of Rothschild acquired an interest in the three leading European agencies. (Havas, France; Reuters, England; Wolff, Germany)."

On April 28, 1915, Baron Herbert de Reuter, Chief of the Reuters Agency, shot himself. The cause was the crash of the Reuters Bank, which had been organized by Baron Julius de Reuter, founder of Reuter's, to handle foreign remittances without their being subjected to any accounting. He was succeeded by Sir Roderick Jones, who says in his autobiography, "Shortly after I succeeded Baron Herbert de Reuter in 1915, it so happened that I received an invitation from Mr. Alfred Rothschild, then head of the British House of Rothschild, to lunch with him in historic New Court, in the City." Jones prudently refrains from telling us what was discussed at this meeting.

Only one member of Congress voted against the U.S. declaration of war against Germany in World War I, Jeanette Rankin. She was also the only member of Congress to vote against our entry into World War II. Opponents of Wilson's action were often beaten and imprisoned. Eugene Debs was sentenced to a long prison term. Congressman Charles Lindbergh ran for Governor of Minnesota on a platform opposing our participation in the war. The New York Times regularly ran scathing denunciations of his campaign. On June 9, 1918, it noted, "Rep. Clarence H. Miller denounced Lindbergh and the Non Partisan League as seditious. 'According to Mr. Lindbergh the Liberty Loan is a instrument devised by the money sharks. It seems inexcusable that any person allowed to be at large in the United States could entertain or express such a view of this.'" Harrison Salisbury of the New York Times states, "I have searched out the records and they show that mobs trailed Charles K. Lindbergh Sr. during his 1918 campaign for the Republican nomination for the Minnesota governorship. He was arrested on charges of conspiracy along with the Non Partisan Leaguers; a rally at Madison, Minn, was broken up with firehoses; he was hanged in effigy in Red Wing, dragged from the speaker's platform, threatened with lynching, and he escaped from town amid a volley of shots."

Salisbury neglects to mention that a squad of Federal agents from the Bureau of Investigation, led by J. Edgar Hoover on his first important action, attacked Lindbergh and his family, dragged out all the copies of Lindbergh's Your Country at War, and burned them on the lawn; when young Charles rushed forward to stomp out the fire, Hoover knocked him down.

In the summer of 1917, Woodrow Wilson named Col. House to head the American War Mission to the Inter-Allied War Conference, the first such American mission to a European council. With House were his son-in-law, Gordon Auchincloss, and Paul Cravath, Kuhn Loeb's lawyer. Auchinclosswasdirectorof Chase Natl. Bank, Solvay, Sofina, and Cross & Blackwell.

Meanwhile, Walter Lippman and another group were busily working on the plans for the League of Nations. Lippmann had founded the American branch of the Fabian Society in 1905 as the Inter-collegiate Socialist Society, which later became the Students for a Democratic Society after a period when it was known as the League for Industrial Democracy; James T.Shotwell and otherintemationalists worked with Lippmann on this organization.

Although the war was going well for those who had promoted it, hostilities were ended somewhat abruptly by the unforeseen intervention of an aide to the Czar of Russia, Maj. Gen. Count Cherep-Spiridovich, who says, "I had a long discussion with Gen. McDonough Chief of the War Intelligence Dept. in London. I submitted on Sept. 1, 1918 a report advising him peace with Bulgaria would provoke an uprising in Slavic Austria, panic in Germany and surrender of her armies; my advice was accepted; two weeks later peace was signed with Bulgaria, two weeks later Austria was out of the war, two weeks later Germany surrendered."

L.L. Strauss of Kuhn, Loeb Co. states he was one of four American delegates who conferred with the Germans at Brussels in March 1919 on the final armistice. On Nov. 11, 1918, the New York Times headlined, "REDS GRIP ON GERMANY: Konigsberg, Frankfurt-on-Main, Strassburg now controlled by Spartacist Soviets". On Nov. 12, 1918, the New York Times stated, "The revolution in Germany is today, to all intents and purposes, an accomplished fact." On the same day, the New York Times headlined, "Splendor Reigns Again; Jewels a blaze"—The occasion was a gala evening at the Metropolitan Opera, with Caruso and Homer singing Samson and Delilah. Attending were the Otto Kahns with the French Consul-General; the George F. Bakers and his sister Mrs. Goadby Loew; Cornelius Vanderbilt and his daughters; the Whitneys, the J. P. Morgans, and the E.T. Stotesburys; the Fricks; Mrs. Bernard Baruch; her husband was in Europe on important business; Mrs. Adolf Ladenburg. These celebrants were also the principal investors in American International Corporation, which was financing the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.

The American Commission to Negotiate Peace predictably included Walter Lippmann, the Dulles brothers, the Warburg brothers (Paul from the U. S., Max from Germany) L.L. Strauss, Thomas W. Lamont, as well as House, Wilson and Wilson's Secretary of State, Robert Lansing, the Dulles' uncle. Their genial host was Baron Edmond de Rothschild. Representing France at the Peace Conference was Finance Minister Klotz, who, according to Nowell-Baker, had for years been usefully employed by the Rothschilds to distribute bribes to the press. The Reparations Commission was established Jan. 25, 1919, with Bernard Baruch from the U.S., Klotz from France, and Lord Cunliffe, Governor of the Bank of England, represening England. Carter Field notes, "Nearly every afternoon Baruch had a pleasant session at the Crillon with three or four of his old cronies from the War Industries Board."

Wilson returned to the United States July 8, 1919, laden with one million dollars worth of jewelry, gifts from appreciative Europeans as a reward for his promise to get the U.S. into the League of Nations. Not a single member of Congress had been with him at the Paris Peace Conference. His associates were the Fabians of America, Dr. James T. Shotwell, Eugene Delano, and Jacob Schiff. Herbert Hoover immediately joined Col. House as the most vociferous advocate of our joining the League of Nations.

Baruch later testifed before the Graham Committee; "I was economic advisor with the peace commission. GRAHAM: Did you frequently advise the President while there? BARUCH: Whenever he asked my advice I gave it. I had something to do with the reparations clauses. I was the American Commissioner in charge of what they called the Economic Section. I was a member of the Supreme Economic Council in charge of raw materials. GRAHAM: Did you sit in the council with the gentlemen who were negotiating the treaty? BARUCH: Yes, sir, some of the time. GRAHAM: All except the meetings that were participated in by the Big Five. BARUCH: And frequently those also."

The Reparations Commission ordered the Germans to issue four issues of bonds, all to be delivered to the Reparations Commission as follows: 1. 20 billion gold marks, 5 billion paper marks by May 1, 1921 for the army of occupation. 2. War cost of Belgium—4 billion gold marks due May 1, 1926. 3. 40 billion gold marks at 21/2% interest from 1921-26, to be retired in 1951. 4. a 30-year provisional fund of general reparations. (Treaty of Versailles, Financial Clauses 248-63).

The bankers immediately began to treat these gigantic sums as sources of capital, to be monetarised by loans and other negotiable instruments. Lloyd George told the N.Y. Journal American, June 24, 1924; "The international bankers dictated the Dawes reparations settlement. The Protocol which was signed between the Allies and Associated Powers and Germany is the triumph of the international financier. Agreement would never have been reached without the brusque and brutal intervention of the international bankers. They swept statesmen, politicians and journalists to one side, and issued their orders with the imperiousness of absolute monarchs, who knew that there was no appeal from their ruthless decrees. The settlement is the joint ukase_of KingJQollar and King Sterling. Dawes report was theirs. They inspiredand fashionedit. TheDawesReport was fashioned by the Money Kings. The orders of German financiers to their political representatives were just as peremptory as those of allied bankers to their political representatives."

World Government: UN, RIIA, CFR

Although the reparations clauses achieved the desired result of forcing the Germans to fight a Second World War, the primary result was the formation of a "front" world government, the League of Nations, while in the background the conspirators established their real governing body, the World Order, through the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and its American subsidiary, the Council on Foreign Relations.

In 1895, Cecil Rhodes, South African agent of the Rothschilds, established a secret society whose avowed purposes was as follows: "In the end Great Britain is to establish a power so overwhelming that wars must cease and the Millenium be realized." To achieve this goal, he left $150 million to the Rhodes Trust. The Rothschild already had a group with similar aims, the Round Table, set up by Lord Alfred Milner, into which J. P. Morgan had been recruited in 1899.

The Council on Foreign Relations Handbook of 1936 states, "On May 30, 1919, several leading members of the delegations to the Paris Peace Conference met at the Hotel Majestic in Paris to discuss setting up an international group which would advise their respective governments on international affairs. The U.S. was represented by Gen. Tasker H. Bliss (Chief of Staff, U.S. Army), Col. Edward M. House, Whitney H. Shepardson, Dr. James T. Shotwell, and Prof. Archibald Coolidge. Great Britain was unofficially represented by Lord Robert Cecil, Lionel Curtis, Lord Eustace Percy, and Harold Temperley. It was decided at this meeting to call the proposed organization the Institute of International Affairs. At a meeting on June 5, 1919, the planners decided it would be best to have seperate organizations cooperating with each other. Consequently, they organized the Council on Foreign Relations, with headquarters in New York, and a sister organization, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, in London, also known as the Chatham House Study Group, to advise the British Government. A subsidiary organization, the Institute of Pacific Relations, was set up to deal exclusively with Far Eastern Affairs. Other organizations were setupinParisandHamburg, the Hamburg branch being called the Institut fur Auswartige Politik, and the Paris branch being known as Centre d' Etudes de Politicque Etrangere, at 13 Rue de Four, Paris VI." The Hamburg branch was established, of course, because of the Warburg family bank there.

Having dominated the Paris Peace Conference, Baron Edmond de Rothschild saw the establishment of the World Order through these groups as the crowning achievement of his life. The "founders" of the RIIA were, one and all, Rothschild men; honorary chairman of the CFR was Elihu Root, lawyer for Morgan and Kuhn, Loeb Co.; Alexander Hemphill, a Morgan banker, and Otto Kahn of Kuhn, Loeb Co.

The founders of the RIIA were Rothschild's principal South African agents; Sir Otto Beit, trustee of Rhodes Estate and director of British South Africa Co.; Percy Alport Molteno, son of the first Premier of Cape Colony; Sir Abe Bailey, owner of the Transvaal Mines, who worked closely with Sir Alfred Milner in starting the Boer War; John W. Wheeler-Bennett, who became Gen. Eisenhower's political adviser at SHAEF London 1944-45; Sir Julien Cahn; and Lionel Curtis, colonial secretary of the Transvaal, who gave his address as the Round Table, 175 Picadilly Rd., London. He was later appointed Beit lecturer on the colonial history of South Africa.

Other founders of RIIA included four members of the Astor family—Viscount Astor, Hon. F.D.L. Astor, M.L. Astor, and H.J.J. Astor, the latter being chmn of The Times and director of Hambros Bank. The first President of RIIA was Lt. Col. R.W. Leonard, president of the Coniagas Mines. The Lord Patron was Her Majesty the Queen. All Prime Ministers and Viceroys of the Colonies since 1923 have been Honorary Presidents of RIIA. Stephen King Hall, in his definitive work, "Chatham House," says, "The Prince of Wales graciously accepted the office of Visitor. This appointment secured that the Institute could never be perverted to party or propaganda purposes."

The 1934 list of members of RII A included Sir Austin Chamberlain, Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord Privy Seal, and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; Harold MacMillan, who married the daughter of the Duke of Devonshire and later became Prime Minister, and Lord Eustace Percy, Duke of Northumberland. The 1942 membership list includes Sir Roderick Jones, head of Reuters; G.M. Gatheren-Hardy; Sir Andrew McFadyen, chmn North British Borneo Co. and United Rubber Estates—he served with the British Treasury 1910-1917, represented the Treasury at the Paris Peace Conference 1919-20, was Gen. Secretary of the Reparations Commission, 1922-25; Commissioner of Controlled Revenues Berlin 1924-30, later with S.G. Warburg Co.; Col. Vickers; and Lord Brand, managing director Lazard Bros., who married Lady Astor's sister, Phyllis Langhorne, was dep. chmn British Mission in Washington 1917-18, financial adviser to Lord Robert Cecil, chmn Supreme Economic Council at the Paris Peace Conference; George Gibson, dir. Bank of England; John Hambro of Hambros Bank; Lord Derby (Edward Villiers), Lord of Treasury, Secretary of State for War, 1916-1918, who had a 69,000 acre estate in Lancashire,; and Lord Cromer (Baring).

During its early years, RIIA was principally funded by the Rothschilds through donations funnelled through Sir Abe Bailey and Sir Alfred Beit, with about $100,000 year; since then, it has been funded with many millions of dollars by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation.

In 1936 the RIIA $400,000 budget was also funded by the following corporate subscribers: N.M. Rothschild & Sons; British South Africa Co.; Bank of England; Reuters News Agency; Prudential Assurance Co.; Sun Insurance Office Ltd; and Vickers- Arm strong Ltd.; all of which were known as Rothschild enterprises. Other subscribers were J.Henry Schroder Co., Lazard Freres, Morgan Grenfell, Erlangers Ltd., and E.D. Sassoon Co.

A number of popular books now in circulation claim that the Council on Foreign Relations is the secret government of the United States. Nothing could be more incorrect. The members of the Council on Foreign Relations have never originated a single item of policy for the U.S. Government. They merely transmit orders to our government officials from the RIIA and the House of Rothschild in London. It is true that the CFR comprises a ruling elite inthe United States, but they are mere colonial governors absolutely responsible to their overseers in the World Order. However, every prominent American mentioned in the present book is a member of the CFR, and therefore it is not necessary to note it each time a name is mentioned. Not only do they transmit orders to the White House, the Cabinet, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, and other government institutions, but they also maintain absolute control of the foundations, whose duty it is to formulate policy or organize it in acceptable form to be transmitted to the government. Shoup's "Imperial Brain Trust", 1969, notes that the CFR includes 22 trustees of Brookings Institution, 29 at Rand, 14 at Hudson, 33 at Middle East Institute, 14 of 19 trustees of the Rockefeller Foundation, 10 of 17 at Carnegie, 7 of 16 at Ford Foundation, 6 of 11 at Rockefeller Bros. Fund. This proves that the CFR runs these major foundations. In the academic world, CFR members number 58 on the faculty at Princeton, 69 at the University of Chicago, and 30 at Harvard. Of the banks which are the principal owners of Federal Reserve Bank stock, directors of Chase include 7 CFR members, 8 at J. P. Morgan, 7 at 1st Natl. City (now Citibank), 6 at Chemical Bank, and 6 at Brown Bros. Harriman.

The 1968 list of CFR members included John J. McCloy, chmn of the board; Frank Altschul, secretary and vice-pres.; David Rockefeller vice-pres.; and directors Robert V. Roosa, Douglas Dillon, and Allen Dulles. McCloy also served as chmn Ford Foundation 1953-65, director of the Rockefeller Foundation, and personal lawyer to the Rockefeller family interests. His career is typical of a leading official of the World Order. While a student at Harvard, he became a protege of Felix Frankfurter. He joined the firm of Cravath, Swaine & Moore, lawyers for Kuhn, Loeb Co. where he remained from 1925-40. In 1940 Frankfurter recommended him to Henry Stimson as Asst. Sec, of War, where he remained from 1941-45. He wrote and issued the infamous political views of servicemen "unless there is a specific finding that the individual involved has a loyalty to the Communist Party which overrides his loyalty to the U.S." Senator McCarthy termed this directive "treasonable".

McCloy succeeded Eugene Meyer as president of the World Bank from 1947-49, was appointed High Commissioner of Germany where he served from 1949-52, was chmn of the board Chase Natl Bank from 1953-61, and Rockefeller's attorney since then. He is a director of Union Pacific, Westinghouse, ATT, Dreyfus, Squibb, & Mercedes Benz. He married Ellen Zinsser, who is not otherwise identified in McCloy's 1947 Current Biography. In the l961 issue, she is identified as the niece of Hans Zinsser, a bacteriologist. This is odd, because she is also the daughter of John Zinsser, partner of J. P. Morgan Co., and chmn of the board of Sharp & Dohme chemicals. It is an interesting footnote to history that the son-in-law of a J.P. Morgan partner should be appointed U.S. High Commissioner of a vanquished Germany.

The New York Times noted on Aug. 6, 1965, "JJ. McCloy Proposes Foundation Pattern for European Giving". He stated at Salzburg, "I wish that there could be erected in Europe a complex of foundations whose representatives could exchange thoughts with those of American foundations and thus form a sort of informal approach to some of the great problems of the day." "Informal" is the cade.word, of the World Order. It means "issuing from world headquarters". McCloy did not state the obvious, that five men control allpf the major U.S. foundations, and that he wished they could have the same system in Europe.

The RIIA has worked closely with the London School of Economics, which was set up as a training school for the World Order bureaucrats. The school was established in 1920 with financial aid from the Rothschilds and Sir Julius Wernher. Sir Ernest Cassel later gavetheschool472,000 pounds. Prof. J.H. Morgan wrote in Quarterly Review, Jan. 1939, "When I once asked Lord Haldane why he persuaded his friend Sir Ernest Cassel, grandfather of Lady Mountbattem, to settle by his will large sums on the London School of Economics, he replied, 'Our object is to make this institution a place to raise and train the bureaucracy of the future Socialist State.'" Sir William Beveridge, author of Great Britain's ruinous Cradle to the Grave political program, was director of the London School of Economics from 1920-1937.

Rise of the 'British Empire'

The British Empire has prospered on piracy, slavery and the drug traffic. Drake's Pirates became the Merchants Adventurers Co. (Sebastian Cabot) which later became the Chartered Co. of East India. It was reorganized in 1700. It originally paid the Hong of Canton silver for tea, but discovered they would accept opium instead. This fortuitous arrangement encountered resistance from some Chinese leaders, causing England to prosecute ten Opium Wars against China, from the Opium War of 1840-43 to the Manchurian Conquest of 1931.

In 1715 the British East India Co. opened its first Far East office in Canton. Crown Policy deliberately fostered opium addiction among the natives to facilitate British political control. The British Empire was then threatened with bankruptcy if it lost the American colonies. In order to defeat the rebels, the profits of the opium trade with China were sent to the Elector of Hesse via Mayer Amschel Rothschild to hire 16,800 Hessian troops. Thus the drug traffic and the Rothschilds played a pivotal role in American history, although it has been ignored or deleted from the history books.

David Ricardo, father of the quantity theory of money and the "rent", or loot theory, was on the Court of Proprietors of the East India Co. He had John Stuart Mill appointed as Chief Examiner. The colonial minister of England during the Opium Wars was Edward Bulwer Lytton, who wrote the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, bringing England $21 million in silver and control over the free port of Hong Kong. Britain then allied with the Hong Society, the Triads and Assassins, to rule the Chinese to the present time. Bulwer Lytton's son was Viceroy of India during the 1880s at the height of the opium trade, and sponsored Rudyard Kipling's writings about the British Raj in India.

The profiteers from the drug trade included William, Earl of Shelburne, who organized Britain's first Intelligence Service, whose agents were drawn from Britain's leading families. Its chairman was George Baring, and it employed Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, and Thomas Malthus. The Geneva headquarters was run by the Mallet Prevost family, whose descendants include Allen Dulles of the CIA. Basil Lubbock's work, The Opium Clippers, 1933, lists the principal owners of British vessels engaged in the opium trade, with color illustrations of their flags. Most of them were ex-slavers. No. 1 was Hon. East India Co. (known to the Chinese as Hon John Co.); 2. Jardine Matheison; 3. Dent & Co.; 4. Pybus Bros.; 5. Russel & Co.; 6. Cama Bros.; 7. Duchess of Atholl; 8. Earl of Bale arras; 9. George IV; 10. Prince Regent; 11. Marquis of Camden; 12. Lady Melville.

On Feb. 1, 1927, the New York Times noted the passing of Sir Robert Jardine, "the son and heir of the late Sir Robert Jardine, and succeeded his father as the head of Jardine Mathieson & Co. Hong Kong which for a long time held almost a monopoly in the importation of Indian opium into China." Sir Robert had inherited $20 million and 20,000 acres in Scotland. Dr. William Jardine had settled in Canton in 1819.

The present Duke of Atholl owns 202,000 acres at Blair Castle, and is the only person in England authorized by the Crown to maintain a private army. Lady Melville's ancestor, George, the first Earl, welcomed William of Orange to the throne in 1688 and was appointed Lord Privy Seal.

In Paris, Banque Rothschild directors include Elie de Rothschild, director of New Court Securities, Banque Leumi de Israel, Five Arrows Fund N.V. Curacao; Alain de Rothschild, Five Arrows Fund Curacao, Banque Lambert de Bruxelles; Guy de Rothschild—Rio Tinto Zinc, New Court Securities, NY.; Sir James Goldsmith; Hubert Faure, Ambassador to Colombia, pres. Schneider Madrid and ten Otis companies;Bernardde Vi11emejane,pres. Imetal, director Copperweld. Sir James Goldsmith is also chmn Generale Occidentale which owns Grand Union and Colonial food stores in the U.S., Cavenham USA and Banque Occidentale; its directors include David de Rothschild (son of Guy), who is also director of Compagnie du Nord and Societe de Nickel.

Rothschilds in Africa

Through the Belgian branch of the Rothschild family, we can trace the influence of the Rothschilds in Africa during the past century. Baron Leon Lambert financed King Leopold's Belgian empire; the Congo Syndicate included Baron Empain (l'compagnie d'Orient) F. Philippson & Co., and Banque Outremer. This syndicate was allied with Banque de Paris, the Anglo-Italian Group, and the Peking Syndicate. The Congo empire came into being in 1885 after Leopold had financed Stanley's explorations. It included an area the size of Poland, and produced fabulous returns from Congo rubber, ivory and slaves.

Later the Union Miniere acquired vast copper mines, the Compagnie de Katanga. One of their most ruthless agents was Emile Francqui, who later became Hoover's partner in China and in the Belgian Relief Commission; his name survives at Congo's Port Francqui. The Congo interests are now controlled by the Lamberts through Societe Generale de Banque, which merged the Societe Generale de Belgique, the oldest bank in Brussels, founded in 1822, and Banque d' Anver, founded 1827; its secretary is Baron Fauconval, a director of the Rockefeller Foundation. Societe Generale acquired Union Miniere in Dec. 1981; in 1972 it had acquired Compagnie Outremer, formerly Banque Outremer, and in Dec. 1964, had acquired 25% of SOFINA, Societe Financier de Transport & Enterprises Industrielles, the largest holding company in Europe. These firms are controlled by the Rothschild bank, Banque Bruxelles Lambert, founded in 1840 by Baron Lambert. The present Baron is director of Soceite Generale de Banque, and president of Compagnie Generale d' Enterprises Electricque which owns fifty power companies.

Banque Lambert de Bruxelles is also the Lambert of the Wall Street firm of Drexel Burnham Lambert, owning 19% of it. As the Belgian branch of the House of Rothschild, the Lamberts tremendous influence on American financial markets when they pioneered in the widespread use of high interest paying, high risk bonds, called "junk bonds", to take over and buy out may of the Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Insider trading became an increasing scandal, as many billions of dollars were made in quick profits by Drexel Burnham Lambert employees such as Michael Milken, who earned $500 million a year in his trading of junk bonds. He is now serving a prison term. These operations created the climate for a major recession which now plagues the nation.

Gerard Eskenazi is director of Compagnie Generale; he is also managing director of Electrorail S.A., a holding company for Schneider S.A., European Trading and African Corp., and Canadian Investment Trust. The president of Electrorail is Baron Empain. Eskenazi is also director of Compagnie International des Wagons Lits (Thomas Cook travel agency). Baron Edouard Empain and his son Baron Francois Empain are also directors of Compagnie Generale.

Another Belgian holding company, Delhaizes Frere et Cie Leon, established 1867, now owns Food Giant and Food Town Stores in the U.S., renamed Food Lion.

Through Banque Bruxelles and its interlocking companies, the Rothschilds effectively control Belgium. They also interlock with the Thurn und Taxis interests in Germany. Prince Johannes Erbprinz Thurn und Taxis is said to be the richest man in Europe, controlling Bayerische Vereinsbank, fourth largest bank in Germany, which has four subsidiaries in Frankfurt, including Bankhaus Gebruder Bethmann. Bethmann-Hollweg of this family had been Chancellor under Kaiser Wilhelm, and had set off World War I. He was a cousin of the Rothschilds. Bayerische Vereinsbank also owns controlling interest in Banque de Paris et dea Payes, and Banque de l'Europeene Paris. Thurn und Taxis is a direct descendant of William of Orange, who chartered the Bank of England; his mother, the Princess of Braganza of the former ruling house of Portugal, has three direct family connections with the present House of Windsor; Prince Thurn und Taxis also has four connections with the House of Windsor.

The Thurn und Taxis family has enjoyed eight hundred years of prominence in Europe. Originally Tasso of Bergamo, they later emigrated to Brussels. They supervised the postal service and intelligence of the Most Serene Republic of Venice, and later fulfilled the same post in the Hapsburg Empire. The present Prince has huge estates in Brazil; he is the financial adviser of the Rolling Stones; and his palace of St. Emmerans is larger than Buckingham Palace; it costs 2.5 million DM a year to maintain. The Regensburg branch of the family was allied with the Fuggers and the Wessers. They now finance the Pan European Union which is headed by the Hapsburg heir, Archduke Otto, and the Mont Pelerin Society, a subsidiary of Pan Europe.

The House of Hesse

The House of Hesse, which played such a crucial role in the founding of the Rothschild fortune, and in the founding of America, seldom appears in the news. On Nov. 17, 1937, six members of the family were killed in the crash of a Sabena airliner at the fog-shrouded Ostend airport. The head of the family, Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig (who had tried to end World War I by a desperate mission into Russia to confer with the Czar) had died on Oct. 9, causing the post-poning of Prince Ludwig's marriage to Margaret Campbell Geddes in London for seven weeks. Grand Duke George, the new head of the family, his wife Princess Cecilia of Greece and Denmark, two sons and the Dowager Duchess, as well as the newly born son of Princess Cecilia, were all killed. The child's unexpected arrival apparently caused the tragedy, as the pilot tried to land at Ostend, an unscheduled stop. Prince Ludwig, social attache at the German Embassy in London, went ahead with the wedding on the following day; his best man was his cousin Prince Louis Mountbatten. Two princes of Hesse had married two daughters of Queen Victoria; Beatrice had married Prince Henry of Battenberg; grandfather of the present husband of Queen Elizabeth.

Prince Ludwig's father-in-law, Sir Auckland Campbell Geddes, also had a Rothschild connection; he was chmn of Rio Tinto. He served as Minister of National Service, 1917-19, British Ambassador to the U.S., 1920-24. His brother, Sir Eric Geddes, was a member of the Imperial War Cabinet and First Lord of the Admiralty 1917-18, Minister of National Transport 1919-21, and later chmn Imperial Airways and Dunlop Rubber. His son, Sir Anthony Geddes, married into the Matthey family, becamse director of the Bankof England, dep chmn Midland Bank, director Shell Transport & Trading, and is now chmn Dunlop Holdings. Sir Auckland's son, the 2d Baron, was with Shell Oil 1931-46, British Merchant Shipping Mission in Washington, 1942-44, Minister of War Transport, 1944-45, and is now director of Peninsular & Orient Steamship Lines.

On June 7, 1946, the New York Times headlined a front page story from Frankfort-on-Main; the army was seeking $1,500,000 in stolen jewels, later revised to $3 million value. The jewels, belonging to the House of Hesse, had been hidden in their cellar of their castle in 1944. They belonged to Princess Margaretha, sister of Kaiser Wilhelm. A party of U.S. Army officers had held a party at the Hesse castle to celebrate the anniversary of D-Day. During the party, they discovered 1600 bottles of wine buried in the cellar; beneath the wine they found the jewels. Ten of the celebrants drank the wine and divided up the jewels. Maj. Gen. J.M. Bevans, who was reprimanded, later returned his part of the loot. Wac. Captain kathleen Durant and her hustand, Col. J. Durant were tried after two quarts of diamonds were dug up in the backyard of their Falls Church home. Maj. David Watson also was sentenced; he had been previously awarded the Bronze Medal personally by Gen. Eisenhower for his supply work, andalso received the Russian Medal for Battle Merit from Marshal Zhukov.

The House of Hesse is also known for the Curse of Hesse, their introduction of the family disease of haemophilia into many of the ruling houses of Europe, particularly the Spanish Royal Family and the Romanov family in Russia.

Old Mayer Amschel's heritage has survived intact, according to the Washington Post, Dec. 20, 1984, which notes that Frankfurt-on-Main is the financial capital of Germany, headquarters of the five dominant German banks, with 175 foreign banks established there. It also is headquarters for the Central Bank, and the country's largest stock exchange. Like Manhattan, it is also a center of vice and corruption, with sex shops, drugs, and frequent riots because of the presence of 11,000 American occupation troops.

Rothschild control of Newspapers

Penetration of the United States is shown by a fullpage ad in the Wall Street Journal Dec. 21, 1984, a solicitation to purchase all the outstanding shares of Scovill, Inc. by First City Properties, Inc. with the deal managed by Rothschild, Inc. One Rockefeller Plaza, New York. "First City" is the Rothschild code for banks originating under their influence from the "City of London" financial district. First City Properties, Beverly Hills, Calif, is headed by Samuel Belzberg, who also heads First City Financial Corp. Vancouver, First City Trust, Edmonton, and First City Development Ltd. He is a director of Dead Sea Canal Co. The Belzbergs started in Canada with a used furniture store (rag and bone men), and are now influential wheeler dealers on the American stock market.

Rothschilds Inc., established at the Rockefeller address, is successor to Banque Rothschild of Paris. Its co-chairmen are Guy de Rothschild and Evelyn de Rothschild. Directors are Lord Rothschild, head of N.M. Rothschilds & Sons, London; David de Rothschild, Nathaniel de Rothschild, Eric de Rothschild; Thomas L. Piper III, sr. vp Dillon Read and manager of the Rothschild's New Court Securities; its managing director is Wilbur L. Ross Jr., who is also director of Peabody International, and N.M. Rothschild's & Sons International. Other directors of Rothschild International include John Loudon, former chairman of Shell Oil, director of Ford Motor Co., the Ford Foundation, Orion Bank and chairman of Atlantic Institute. He is a Grand Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau, a group formed to commemorate the chartering of the Bank of England by William of Orange in 1694. Another director of Rothschild Inc. isG. Peter Fleck, born in Amsterdam, chairman New Court Securities, formerly with Erlangers, and the Banque de Pays de L'Europe Central of Paris, cited by Higham as a key bank during Nazi occupation of France. Fleck is also officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau.

Banque de Pays de L'Europe of Paris, (Paribas) was recently bought by Merrill Lynch. Paribas bought 50% of Dillon Read Ltd. in a consortium with Bruxelles Lambert (the Belgian Rothschilds), the Power Group and the Laurentian group of Canada, the Tata Group of India, Elders IXL holding company of Australia, Swiss Bank Cantrade, and two British groups, Investors in Industry, a Bank of England group with nine English and Scottish banks, and the British postal pension fund.

Power Corp. of Canada directors included G. Eskenazi, of Belgian Rothschild firms, and William Simon, former Secretary of theTreaaury of the U.S. The "Canadian connection", the Belzbergs and Bronfmans, demonstrates the growing power of the Rothschilds in billion dollar mergers and takeovers of U.S. industry, including DuPont. These mergers recall the same kind of activity taking place in 1929, just before the stock market debacle, and represent the battening down of the hatches before the storm.

Power Corp. interlocks with the leading newspaper chain of Canada, the Hollinger Group, which recently bought the most important newspaper in Israel, the Jerusalem Post, the national newspaper of record, which became the leading hawk for Gen. Ariel Sharon's aggressive acts, and which now advocates a new and stronger alliance between Mossad, Israeli Intelligence, and the KGB, supposedly to combat "anti-Semitism" and to discourage Germany's industrial productivity. Hollinger's also bought an important English paper, the London Dail Intelligencer. At the 60th annual banquet of the Hollinger Group, held in London, William F. Buckley, editor of the National Review, the leading neoconservative and CIA mouthpiece, effusively praised the chairman of Hollinger's, Conrad Black, drivelling about his "encyclopaedic knowledge, his absolute sense of orientation, and his modest manners." Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher delivered the principal address, after which Black rose to mention "the great debt I among so many owe her."

Other directors of Hollinger's are Henry Kissinger, of whom more later; liquor tycoon Peter Bronfman, chairman of Brascan Ltd., a Canadian enterprise of the Rothschilds which began in May 1945 as the British Newfoundland Corp. It was rechartered by William Stephenson, the famed assassin and spymaster known as "Intrepid"', who renamed it British American Canadian Co; he then changed the name to World Commerce Corp. operating out of Panama, until it received its present name of Brascan. Also on the board of Brascan is Edgar Bronfman, president of the World Jewish Congress, and chairman of Seagrams liquor in New York. Also serving on the board of Hollinger Group isLord Carrington, former Foreign Minister of Great Britain, a cousin of the Rothschilds who co-founded Kissinger Associates with Henry Kissinger, later was chairman of NATO in Brussels, and is now a director of Christie's, the art auction house.

Conrad Black was the protege of Edward Plunket Taylor, wartime spymaster with William Stephenson. Hollinger owns eighty newspapers and one hundred and fifteen weeklies in Canada, United States, Israel and England. The Rothschilds urged Black to purchase the Jerusalem Post, which was financed through the Gee Corp. of Vancouver, a financial cover for Li Ka-Shing, vice chairman of the Hong Kong Shanghai Bank, which has historically been known as the drug barons' bank. Black then added Evelyn de Rothschild, of N.M. Rothschild's & Sons, London, to the board, with Henry Jardine and Sir James Goldsmith, another relative of the Rothschilds. The Hollinger Group originally was created by Churchill during World War II through Edward P. Taylor; it merged with a firm called Argus, which controlled Canadian Breweries, the worlds largest brewer, the operation was part of Churchill's using war funds to set up vast corporate conglomerates as the War Supplies Corp., a "nonprofit company". It later made one billion dollars profit during World War II. Also serving on the board of Hollinger Group in financier Frederick S. Eaton, Allan Gotlieb, former Canadian Ambassador to the United States until his wife's imbroglio with a secretary; and Paul Reichmann, of the billion dollar real estate holding firm, Olympia and York.

In addition to Hollinger Group, the largest owner of newspapers in Canada and the United States is Thomson International. Lord Kenneth Thompson was recently listed by Fortune as having a fortune of six billion dollars. These two chains control the thought process of most Canadians and Americans.