Strange Death of Franklin Roosevelt - Emanuel Josephson

The Rockefeller Empire
Communism, War, and Other 'Philanthropies'

The Rockefeller Empire is an outgrowth of the Standard Oil Company. Rockefeller had built up with tremendous skill the powerful oil monopoly. By 1915, the Company produced almost one third of the oil yield of the United States. Complete monopoly of the oil business in the United States and throughout the world loomed as a conceivable goal and became the objective.

The dominant position in oil had been gained by gangsterism, that would make Al Capone blush. Special railroad rates and rebates extracted from railroads also played an important role in wiping out competition. In the process there had been used the unsavory methods, ranging from theft to slaughter, which were the custom of the time in business. Those methods did not differ materially from those of the respected Morgans, Vanderbilts, Goulds and a host of others of that time. Rockefeller's chief offense was his inordinate success and his taciturnity and independence.

Rivals who were less successful in the application of the identical methods used by the Standard Oil Company, organized the "liberals" and the "socially minded," the social service cliques of that era, together with the demagogues, politicians, and crooked newspapers, for another type of battle on their successful competitor—commercial blackmail.

As resentment against the Oil Trust grew, the Rockefeller Standard Oil interests were held up by the politicians through the device of "strike bills", and badgered by investigations and court actions. The muckrakers, church organizations and social service groups exposed the ugly situation and further fanned public resentment. President Theodore Roosevelt, who had succeeded Rockefeller's hand-picked ally, President McKinley, played to the gallery by attacking the Standard Oil Company while indirectly he demanded increased Standard Oil contributions to his campaign funds.

The situation reached its climax in 1907 with the decree handed down by Judge Kenesaw Landis against the Standard Oil Company imposing a fine of twenty-nine million dollars. Two weeks later the panic of 1907 was precipitated. In 1911 the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company was ordered by the Supreme Court.

Rockefeller fiercely resented what he regarded as government interference in his private business. He regarded its conduct as his own affair. It could hardly be expected that he would not fight back. He responded as keenly and as incisively to the virulent and well organized slander and persecution as he had to the other problems that had confronted him in his business. Two modes of approach to such a problem were habitual; first was to compromise with a powerful enemy and to join forces with him; the second was to engineer in the meantime to master and destroy him.

The enemies who confronted Rockefeller and who were responsible for the situation were three—the Wall Street crowd whom he had bested, the welfare and "liberal" crowd, and the government. His score with Wall Street he paid rapidly. Within two weeks after the handing down of the decree, there broke loose the 1907 panic.

The effectiveness with which the welfare and "liberal" crowd had been used in the campaign against him and his Company impressed Rockefeller. They could be made to fit into the pattern of "philanthropy". They were cheaply bought off; and he took them over lock, stock and barrel. Among these "welfare" agencies were the radical church element, the Federation of Churches.

The social service and "uplift" organizations and their allies were taken in hand and later organized through the New York Tuberculosis and Health Association, under the directorship of Harry L. Hopkins, into a nation-wide Social Service Trust. The control of social service and church organizations served a dual purpose. It muzzled the sanctimonious and self-righteous elements and covered all activities thus engaged in with a cloak of respectability. But what was even more important, they tapped the pocketbook of the gullible to the tune of four billion dollars a year in normal times. That money could be put to many important uses.

Not one cent, for instance, of the money collected by the New York Tuberculosis and Health Association from the sale of Christmas seals under the direction of Harry L. Hopkins ever went to a person with tuberculosis or an institution for his care. It was spent in building up the Social Service Trust, in political activities, in building up a press censorship and for the personal use of its bosses especially Hopkins. (Your Life Is Their Toy, Chedney Press 1940, pp. 22-24). Harry Hopkins became one of the principal Rockefeller almoners, Frances Perkins also ranked high.

The Rockefeller "philanthropies" were conceived for the dual purpose of taking the curse off the Rockefeller name and enabling the Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests to carry on without interference from a hostile public or the government. One could hardly expect a man of Rockefeller's efficiency and financial ability to fail to expect to profit handsomely from the disarming advantages of a "philanthropic" front. That Rockefeller realized the profitable business possibilities of a "philanthropic" set-up is indicated by an interesting and revelatory story told of the inception of the plan to buy over public opinion and confound his detractors. It was conceived by Rev. Frederick Taylor Gates who had won John's D.'s respect by his sharpness clothed with piety. Rockefeller had profited handsomely from deals engineered by Gates through religious activities as an executive officer of the American Baptist Education Society. Especially appreciated was his aid in gaining control for a pittance of the Mesabi Mines, one of the richest iron deposits in the country. It netted many millions of dollars when later incorporated into the U. S. Steel Corporation. In John D. A Portrait in Oil John K. Winkler quotes Rockefeller Sr. as follows:

"'Fred Gates was a wonderful business man,' says John D. with satisfaction. 'His work for the American Baptist Education Society required him to travel extensively. Once, as he was going south, I asked him to look into an iron mill in which I had an interest. His report was a model of clarity!

"'Then I asked him to make some investigation of other property in the west. I had been told this particular company was rolling in wealth. Mr. Gates' report showed that I had been deceived.

"'Now I realize that I had met a commercial genius. I persuaded Mr. Gates to become a man of business.'"

Mayhap one can judge with reasonable correctness that if religion helped net Reverend Frederick T. Gates inordinately large profits in his dealings with his fellow men, the manipulation of millions certainly would not fail to do so. The "philanthropies" established by this "wonderful business man" could be expected to be highly profitable, directly or indirectly. They have been more profitable than investments of identical sums in even the Standard Oil Company.

The objective that lay at the back of Gate's and Rockefeller's minds at the inception of these "philanthropies" were clearly stated by Gates in the first publication of the Central Education Board, the "Occasional Letter No. 1", as follows:

"In our dreams we have limitless resources and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hands. The present educational conventions fade from our minds, and unhampered by tradition, we work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk. We shall not try to make these people or any of their children into philosophers or men of learning, or of science. We have not to raise up from among them authors, editors, poets or men of letters. We shall not search for embryo great artists, painters, musicians, nor lawyers, doctors, preachers, politicians, statesmen of whom we have ample supply. The task we set before ourselves is very simple as well as a very beautiful one, to train these people as we find them to a perfectly ideal life just where they are. So we will organize our children into a little community and teach them to do in a perfect way the things their fathers and mothers are doing in an imperfect way, in the homes, in the shop and on the farm."

It is noteworthy that the ultimate object of the "educational philanthropy" is the opposite of its current "window-dressing" activities.

The degree in which their objective has been attained is illustrated by the unanimity of views between all political parties aired by Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold which already has been mentioned. This unanimity is traceable to the influence of the Rockefeller interests on the educational institutions of the country and to the power which their interests exercise in the councils of all major political parties.

The objective was fundamentally propaganda of the type that is now regarded as essential for the establishment of a dictatorship or a totalitarian regime, such as was the goal envisioned by Bismarck a generation prior. In some respects the goal sought was tantamount to the restoration of the caste system that characterizes feudalism and medievalism.

The school of thought which this objective represents found its fullest expression in Hoffman Nickerson's masterpiece "The American Rich," which anticipated Hitler's regime and advocated a similar form of government for the United States. He suggested the abolition of universal franchise, restriction of the vote to wealthy property owners, elimination of education because of the spirit of inquiry which it creates so that there may be restored the medieval mind and its submissiveness, and ends with a plea for establishment of a de facto monarchy in the U.S. A.

Gates shrewdly realized the advantages of poisoning and perverting public opinion at its fountainhead, the schools, colleges and universities. Gates took full advantage of the cloak of piety and the support offered by his position in the Baptist Church in accomplishing his purpose. He had Rockefeller endow the University of Chicago, as the first step in gaining control of education.

In 1901, Rockefeller established and endowed the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. The Rockefeller interest in medicine is explainable on a number of grounds. First is the realization that there is no more vital interest for mankind than health; and those who offer to promote health are naturally regarded as benefactors. Folks are generally willing to spend all they have to recover their health. This makes the business aspects of medicine very profitable. Rockefeller was well aware of this because his father "Doc" William Rockefeller had earned his livelihood as a quack doctor selling petroleum oil as a fake patent medicine "cure" for cancer. The Rockefeller interest in oil had in fact arisen out of their interest in patent medicine.

A few benefits have accrued to mankind from the activities of the Rockefeller endowed medical research organizations. These have been surprisingly few in comparison with the large sums expended. Most of them that have had any real value have been sanitation projects that bore some relation to commercial or industrial developments. It is notable that in era of vast strides in the chemistry of medicine, no basic discoveries and few significant ones have emanated from the Rockefeller group. Some outside investigators have been subsidized, however, after they made significant discoveries.

A large proportion of the discoveries announced, on the other hand, have proved unfounded. Among them are the following:

  • The discovery of the organism that causes infantile paralysis.
  • The discovery of the organism that cause smallpox.
  • The discovery of the organism causing mumps.
  • The discovery of the organism causing measles.
  • The discovery of a curative serum of pneumonia.
  • The discovery of a preventive vaccine and curative serum for yellow fever, and numerous others.

Tremendous medico-political pressure has been brought to bear to protect the reputations of these supposed discoverers and of the Institute.

The vast funds of the Rockefeller endowed Institutions have been utilized for the purpose of gaming control of educational institutions, hospitals and other medical and research facilities. It has created vested interests and rackets in medical research. Institutional and personal jealousies, intensified by tremendous power acquired by small cliques with the funds of the Foundation, have resulted in the suppression of needed researches by really capable, independent workers. It has barred many of them from the opportunity to engage in research. It has served to enable its employees to reestablish medieval dogmatism in medicine in order to protect their reputations and interests. Their efforts to protect their jobs have served to retard medical advance and to injure the interests of the public.

The Rockefeller Institute was founded for the avowed purpose of directing medical practise in channels desired for various reasons by Gates and Rockefeller. It was designed for the purpose of control of medicine. Gates was convinced that the medical tradition built up through the ages was unsound and must be replaced by an arrogant "Medical Science" which insists that what it does not know is untrue. This ignorant dogmatism coupled with research politics has resulted in the Institute retarding the advance of medical knowledge, prostituting it to commercial interests, and has cost many lives.

Discoveries such as the improvement of the method of preparation of tryparsamide have been patented by the Institute and licensed to manufacturers. Whether the anti-pneumococcus serum processes, many of which were developed in the Institute, are patented or licensed has not been made public. But at least one of the firms which exploits the serum has been identified in the public mind with the Rockefeller interests.

The Institute denies that it receives any royalties on its patents. It does not state whether it, or its sponsor, owns any stocks in the companies involved. It also refuses to make public its stock holdings. This refusal is surprising in view of the full and detailed publication made by the Foundation of all its holdings.

The Rockefellers have large interests in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. They also have very large holdings in the German Dye Trust, I. G. Farben industrie, on the directorate of which the Standard Oil of New Jersey was represented by its president, the late Walter Teagle. The Chase National Bank, with which the Rockefellers are closely identified, has floated Dye Trust securities on the American market; and its attorneys, Milbank, Tweed, Hope and Webb, headed by A. G. Milbank, Chairman of the Board of the Borden Company and the Milbank Memorial Fund, have acted for these interests.

It is reasonable to suppose that an institution operated with the efficiency and in the spirit of the Rockefeller "philanthropies" would not be so unbusinesslike as to cast to the winds the large profits which have devolved from some of the Institute's products. Gates undoubtedly was a "business genius" of the rarest foresight and perspicacity.

There is at hand evidence that profits rather than charity or humanitarianism were the prime objectives of the Rockefeller medical "philanthropies." An instance of commercial advantage of "research" endowment leading to the disregard of human values is the million dollar endowed "research" on ethyl gas and the danger of lead-poisoning that it inflicts on the nation. The U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Government had barred the use of ethyl-lead gasoline after a series of poisonings and deaths of workers who made the mixture.

Then a munificently endowed research led the Government and the U.S. Public Health Service to withdraw its prohibition of this type of gasoline. As a result, the entire nation is now exposed to the danger of chronic lead poisoning by lead-filled, automobile-exhaust gases. In due time the mental and physical health of the people is certain to suffer.

Another instance is the tryparsamide patent licensed to Merck and Company by the Rockefeller Institute, Tryparsamide is a dangerous drug that not infrequently causes complete and permanent blindness. Nevertheless the anti-venereal disease campaign that has been conducted by the government under Rockefeller controlled Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Dr. Thomas Parran, has compelled the use of this blinding remedy in the treatment of often benign and quiescent cases of syphilis. Many persons have been totally and completely blinded by the use of this Rockefeller Institute licensed patent drug.

Enormous profits are being made in drugs and chemicals that exceed even those made from oil. In more recent years oil and gas are being used to supply the raw materials for drugs. The Rockefeller interests are known to have extensive holdings in the drug industries. They control among others American Home Products, Sterling Products, Winthrop Chemical Company, American Cyanamide and its subsidiary Lederle Laboratories, and numerous other highly profitable enterprises in the drug field. It is probably safe to say that the Rockefeller profits from drugs and chemicals match their profits from oil.

The Rockefeller interests in the medical and allied industries has been reinforced by the control which they have acquired over medical education through the agency of the Institute and their other "philanthropies".

In the field of medical education, they met with early and easy success. They joined forces with the American Medical Association and its rackets. Medical education is one of the more lucrative medical commercial rackets which the A. M. A. bosses sought to monopolize by destroying their competitors. Alone they could not manage to put the competing schools out of business. But with the aid of the Rockefeller power they forced through legislation in all parts of the country that drove their rivals out of business, after public opinion had been prepared by a specially designed report on medical education by Abraham Flexner.

More than half of the medical schools in the country were driven out of existence; and the Rockefeller interests gained control over medical education and over medical business that eventually enhanced materially the possibilities of profits inherent in the "philanthropies". By some odd quirk the quest for profits in medicine has led them to support the cause of "socialization" of medicine. They do not seem to have stopped to consider that the "socialization" of medicine will point the way to the "socialization" of industry and of "philanthropies" as well. They have saddled on the medical school Bismarxian or Communist propagandists and agitators, in the case of Johns Hopkins University Medical School in the guise of "professor of the history of medicine."

Professor Henry Sigerist, their protege whom they have planted in that school has signed, with Earl Browder and Robert Minor, all the important manifestoes issued by the Communist Party, including that approving of the alliance of Russia with Hitler. He is a ranking agitator for "Socialized Medicine", a key Communist program.

The General Education Board which is by far the most important of the Rockefeller propaganda agencies was founded in 1903, by John D. Rockefeller Jr. and a group that included as collaborator, George Foster Peabody. This is the same George Foster Peabody who later turned over Georgia Warm Springs to Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the maneuvers that prepared the way for his serving the Rockefeller interests as President of the United States of America. Initiated as a Baptist Church endeavor to promote education among the Negroes, the General Education Board was granted a charter by Congress through a bill introduced by Rockefeller's agent in the Senate, Senator Nelson W. Aldrich. The charter was virtually unlimited in its scope in the field of any activity that might be construed as remotely resembling education.

The General Education Board was the chief agency employed in the drive for the destruction of democracy and the establishment of a dictatorship in the United States. For this purpose it fosters, as did Bismarck, Communism as the shortest route to dictatorship in a Democracy, and has converted the U.S. educational system into Communist propaganda agencies.

The progress made by the Board was disclosed in an article in the New York Globe on March 28, 1919, by Dr. W. S. Spillman, formerly Federal Farm Management Chief, as follows:

". . . I was approached by an agent of Mr. Rockefeller with the statement that his object in establishing the General Education Board was to gain control of the educational institutions of the country so that all men employed in them might be 'right.' I was then informed that the Board has been successful with smaller institutions but that the larger institutions had refused to accept the Rockefeller money with strings tied to it. My informant said that Rockefeller was going to add $100,000,000 to the Foundation for the express purpose of forcing his money on the big institutions."

The Board eventually succeeded in gaining control of almost every school, college and university in the country. They found it hard to resist the lure of the jingle of ready cash. They were forced to turn over to the Board power of dictation of their personnel and curriculum. Senator Kenyon, of Iowa, reported this to the U.S. Senate in January 1917.

The Board has saddled on our educational system, in the guise of teachers and professors of the "social sciences," the high priests of class war and revolution, professional agitators and the chanters of the abacadabra of the "social philosophies" a la Bismarck and Marx. It has made them the haven of Socialists, Communists, distributors of wealth and other crack-pot New Dealers. It has helped make the foundation source of prostituted "professors" and "authorities" for the agents provocateurs (also known as "leaders") of labor. These professorial propagandists make most of their incomes as front-men, partners, catspaws and agents of labor union racketeers and as "neutral arbitrators" of labor disputes under the Wagner Act. To-day there are few professors in the larger American Colleges who are not thoroughly Marxist or openly Communist. Particularly the professors of social sciences, who are so often appointed by Presidents and other public officials to commissions as representatives of the public, can be depended upon to support the Communist or radical labor elements. The Commissions thus appointed under the New Deal, are "loaded" and biased. They can be depended upon to betray the public. They are on the payroll of the unions.

In this respect, the General Education Board has been most damaging and dangerous. It has used its power over the schools, colleges and universities throughout the country to place on their teaching staffs hosts of advocates of radicalisms and outright propagandists of alien doctrines. It has placed its resources at the disposal of enemies of our country and its government.

Senator Chamberlain of Oregon, in 1917 foresaw and sounded a warning of this danger in the U.S. Senate. He stated:

"The Carnegie-Rockefeller influence is bad. In two generations they can change the minds of the people to make them conform to the cult of Rockefeller or to the cult of Carnegie, rather than to the fundamental principles of American democracy."

His prophecy is already fulfilled.

The direct dividends derived from the activities of the General Education Board were many, including:

  • Favorable publicity for the founders and advertising of their interests that was worth millions.
  • The power to influence public opinion and the policies of the Government by propaganda distributed through the schools, colleges and universities
  • Control of researches and discoveries, and their application and profits.
  • The power of voting the stock holdings of the institutions which they control and of dictating the expenditure of their funds.
  • The power of appointment of personnel of the institutions which can be converted to the uses of nepotism and favoritism.

Directly following the Supreme Court decision in 1911, ordering the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company, Rockefeller sought of Congress a charter for the Rockefeller Foundation "to promote the well-being of mankind". Congress twice refused a charter to hold one hundred million dollars, on the grounds that it was a device for evasion of payment of taxes, that it was primarily intended for propaganda for seduction of public opinion and influencing politics, and that it would be a menace to the nation. The Foundation succeeded in securing from New York State in 1913 a charter to hold five hundred million dollars.

The bill chartering the Rockefeller Foundation was introduced into New York State Legislature by a man who has discreetly served the Rockefeller interests though he has never permitted himself to be too closely identified with them in the public eye—Senator Robert F. Wagner.

The Foundation has supplemented the activities of the Institute and the General Education Board and has extended them into as many quarters of the world as go the ramifications of the Standard Oil Company subsidiaries and successors. It combines the functions of a tax-exempt business relations agency and super-diplomatic corps. Through its well-advertised and publicized subsidies it has gained entry into many governmental circles from which the interests which it represents would be excluded.

Through a Director of its International Health Division. Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service, for instance, the Foundation is directly represented in a division of our government that is important for its sponsors. He also interlocks the directorship of the Milbank Memorial Fund and a host of other agencies. Significant names on the directorate of the Foundation are: Arthur Hays Sulzberger, the publisher of the New York Times, John Foster Dulles and John J. McCloy.

The creation of the Foundation followed closely on John D. Rockefeller Jr.'s shift in religious attitude toward the "new" or "liberal" theology which pragmatically decried fundamentalism and sectarianism in Protestantism. It is interesting to note that the fundamentalist ministers such as John Roach Stratton accused him of seeking to standardize education and religion through German rationalization.

The Foundation supplanted the activities which had formerly occupied Baptist missions. It is the diplomatic corps that prepares the way for commercial conquests. By elimination of inter-denominational antagonisms attached to missionary work it no doubt proved more efficient. In China the medical missions prepared the way for the conquest by Standard Oil of the kerosene and oil market. They also lent impetus to the creation of modern China. The Bible-selling oil merchant, Soong, was the father of the commercial dynasty which now leads China. [Note: This war written in 1948, immediately before the Communist Revolution in China] Oil is also an important factor in the background of the Chinese-Japanese wars.

The Rockefeller Foundation liberally supported Organized Social Service, especially the organizations that have been devoted to the exploitation of disease under the guiding genius of Harry L. Hopkins. For a period of more than a decade John D. Jr. might have been termed the "angel" of Harry L. Hopkins. This implies that the Rockefellers have sponsored the political machine financed with funds gathered for social service activities, which eventually created the "New Deal." The Rockefeller interests are well represented on the directorate of most of the more important social service agencies.

It has been related that German-born Senator Robert F. Wagner, whose name is synonymous with all the specious doctrines and the most destructive measures of the "New Deal," has been identified with the Rockefeller interests and originally secured the New York State charter for the Foundation. Harry L. Hopkins acknowledged his debt to the Rockfellers, when he was appointed Secretary of Commerce, by offering the post of Assistant Secretary to Nelson Rockefeller. This was reported by Walter Winchell, who later announced that the Rockefeller publicity staff had vetoed Nelson Rockefeller's acceptance of the post. The reason may be discerned in the quiet but persistent propaganda conducted by the Rockefeller publicity men in the press, especially in the Rockefeller controlled or dominated papers such as the Hearst publications and in the New York Times, to pose John D. Rockefeller Jr. as a businessmen's candidate for the job of President of the United States. It is noteworthy that the "New Deal" has dealt most kindly with the Rockefeller interests.

Absurd and dangerous doctrines have been promulgated and incorporated into the law for the deliberate purpose of creating chaos for sinister ulterior motives. This explains why the resources of the General Education Board and of the Foundation have not been used to promulgate and to influence the adoption of a more rational concept of economic and social structure.

With the aid of the machinery of the Foundation it would not take much effort to teach the nation that the menace to its security does not lie in accumulations of wealth, however large they may be; that on the contrary such accumulations constitute a factor of safety for the nation as well as for the individual. The real menace lies in the stupidly conceived and irrational monetary system which so limits the amount of money in circulation that accumulation of reserves by the nation and by individuals results in paralysis of exchange; and bars the setting up of reserves of essential commodities, the raw materials of the necessities of life.

Little more than a century ago the distinguished economist Malthus enunciated, on the basis of a tremendous amount of statistical research, what was named the "Law of Malthus." The "Law" states that population increases by geometric progression and must outstrip the production of food, which it says increases only by arithmetic progression.

From this economic "Law," Malthus deduced the idea that the world would become over-populated and consequently reduced to starvation. Instead we are now ploughing under crops in order to prevent destruction of their value by supposed over-production. Man's ingenuity in improving production and in creating machinery of production was disregarded by Malthus. And they proved his "Law" an absurd fallacy.

An equally fallacious economic "law," that of "supply and demand" and "marginal utility" (a euphuism for speculation, which is the real determining factor) bars us from remedying the reverse condition of that predicted by Malthus—an apparent over-production of food for our present-day populace. If one were to resort to the practice of framing fallacious thinking into "laws," the modem version would read as follows:

"The population and commodity production of the world grow to exceed the dimensions of its monetary system. For survival of that monetary system population and commodities must be destroyed."

And that is being done by means of wars.

In final analysis the economy of the world requires one of two choices: Either the population and material wealth of the world must be destroyed to the point of bringing it within the scope of our present monetary system by a process of war and starvation, in conformity with the above-stated modernization of the "law of Malthus;" or the currency and medium of exchange must be rationally based and soundly expanded to match expansion of population and real wealth.

It is the first plan that rules throughout the world at the present time—identically in Russia as in the United States. It is taught dogmatically and without question in all our schools and universities, whether conservative or radical. Karl Marx in his "Socialism" has justified its application to fixing the value of human beings and their labor. It is the mainspring of the so-called "New Deal" and is the fundamental premise of all social service "philosophy" and thought.

It is apparent that there has been a deliberate fostering of these fallacious views in the classroom, in the land and in the rest of the world, for the insane purpose of precipitating a smashup of the world's economy that will result in absolute concentration of all the wealth and power of the world in a single hand.

The insanity of such an objective is obvious to anyone who stops to think or to consider history. Stability or security, which, in final analysis, all men seek in the brief span of life, can never exist in the presence of a system that breeds starvation and violence. In such a system the master is as likely to succumb to the forces which he has set loose as are the mastered.

There was far greater wisdom in John D. Jr.'s Sunday School homilies which taught that wealth is not essentially evil but a blessing. They did not point out that it is the stupid economic organization to which society clings that converts that blessing into the semblance of a curse.

The General Education Fund has suppressed such views as those of the son of its founder. It has done much to crush the originality of thought that might have enunciated and popularized such rational views. Instead the Rockefeller "philanthropies" have dogmatized the teachings of institutions of learning, and they have fostered destructive Bismarxian propaganda.

It is significant that the Foundation was conceived at the time of the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company. Undoubtedly it had become apparent to the Rockefellers that in order to avoid interference with their enterprises by governments they must take them over more directly and completely than they had thus far done. Taking over governments would not insure absolute submissiveness. This required that the form of the governments of the world must be changed to absolute dictatorships and that all concepts of democracy must be wiped out. That purpose is the obvious explanation of the objective of the Rockefeller interests in giving unlimited support to Communism, Nazism, Fascism, New Dealism and any other type of dictatorship.

The international activities of the Foundation were invaluable in paving the way for the formation of a world-wide oil monopoly. Rockefeller personally directed these maneuvers. This is clear from the report made by Chairman Walsh of the United State Commission on Industrial Relations, who reported:

" . . . Mr. Rockefeller is the Foundation. The testimony shows that the trustees exercised no authority that does not come from him."

The Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests have fostered dictatorships and used them as pawns on their game of international diplomacy. Their all important game since gaining control of the oil reserves of the Americas has been the play for oil lands in the East and the Near East, Caucasus, Iran. Iraq and Saudi Arabia with which to supply their European and Mediterranean markets. Their chief competitors and adversaries have been the British, the Royal Dutch and Shell Companies. The British government has been closely tied up with the companies and adamant in blocking the Rockefeller interests from the oil reserves in their sphere of influence. It was evident that nothing short of destruction of the British Empire would serve to open its territories to the Standard Oil. The Rockefeller interests proceeded to destroy the British Empire in World Wars I and II.

The objective of Kaiser Wilhelm's Berlin to Bagdad Railroad plan, that was one of the principal precipitating causes of World War I, was to wrest Near Eastern oil from the control of the British. The fine hand of Standard Oil can be seen in this move that precipitated war. It was only when the British agreed to let down the barriers to Standard Oil that the U.S. was pushed into the "War to Save Democracy"—a rather high-sounding title for oil. Following the war. Standard Oil obtained concessions in Roumania, Bulgaria. Ethopia, Sumatra, Persia, Kamchatka, Turkey and Saudi Arabia. It also obtained oil monopolies in France in which the French Government was a partner, in Czecho-Slovakia and in China.

After World War I the British took over the Baku oil fields from the Turks and Germans, who had seized them. After their withdrawal they supported the Denikin Army. In the meantime in 1920 the Standard Oil of New Jersey purchased the Baku oil holdings of Nobel Oil Co. For eight years the Rockefeller Standard Oil group battled Royal Dutch and Shell for Baku oil. in the diplomatic field. The Rockefeller-Standard Oil group came out the winner. They offered to grant recognition of the Soviet Government by the United States and the support of Communism in the U.S. in return for oil. After placing Roosevelt in office, they did effect recognition. In 1935, the Socony Vacuum announced that it had bought oil heavily from Russia since 1927.

In the meantime the Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests were busy developing another source of oil in the Mediterranean. A subsidiary, the Anglo-American Oil Company had obtained in 1933 an exclusive concession in the northern half of the Harrar Province in Ethiopia. There is no record of any effective development of the concession, no doubt due to British pressure.

In 1933 there was organized, the African Exploration and Development Company affiliated with Socony Vacuum for exploration of Ethopian oil. Sir Francis Rickett, Rockefeller-Standard Oil negotiator made no headway with Haile Selassie. He turned to Rome and offered Mussolini a deal on Abyssinian oil. In return for invasion of Abyssinia he offered the assurance of the Rockefeller Empire that no sanctions would be exercised by the Rockefeller-controlled League of Nations of which Raymond B. Fosdick, a Rockefeller employee, was executive. The Standard Oil undertook to supply Mussolini with Roumanian oil in return for a thirty year monopoly of the Italian oil market. And after the war started, Socony Vacuum built two refineries in Naples for him. After two months of war, in December 1935, peace was offered Haile Selassie in return for the cession to Italy of the oil-rich Fafan Valley and the lands west of it. The Rockefeller interests did not get complete control of Ethiopian reserves until 1947, when a concession was granted Sinclair Oil, a subsidiary of Standard Oil of Indiana.

In the Chaco in 1933 Standard-British rivalry precipitated the war between Bolivia, backed by the Rockefellers, and Paraguay, by the British. Paraguay openly brought charges against the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey which in the meantime increased its leases in the war area from 386,000 to 2,703,000 hectares.

The invisible Rockefeller Empire is a super-government that is rapidly encompassing the entire globe. It has entered into partnership or other deals, and has dominated the governments of numerous countries throughout the world including France, Italy, Roumania, Germany, Czecho-Slovakia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, China, Abyssinia, Japan and Soviet Russia; and in the Western Hemisphere, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, and Argentine.

For the past thirty-five years, the government of the United States has been a completely dominated and minor dependent bureau of the Rockefeller Empire that has always done its bidding. For more than half a century, the Rockefeller Empire has controlled by its contributions the nominations in the major political parties. Under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, their agent, the Rockefeller Empire entered into open rule of the United States.