Junipero Serra—the Man and his Work - A. H. Fitch

The Coming of the Ship

Portola was completely disheartened. He determined to leave the country. Everything had gone against him. His failure to find Monterey, the scarcity of provisions, the continued absence of the San Jose  with fresh supplies, the sickness among the men, all these appeared to him not only adequate, but imperative reasons for abandoning an enterprise which had been so auspiciously begun for the glory of the Catholic faith and the Spanish king. Portola was not gifted with the characteristics of mind or temperament requisite to the making of a great explorer and successful leader. He was a simple, kind-hearted gentleman, fond of a lively jest, affable in his deportment, considerate towards his men, yet knowing how to maintain strict discipline at all times. While he was in command, we do not hear of an instance of wanton misconduct on the part of the soldiers towards native women. In his long marches through the country, he was assiduous in efforts to gain the confidence and friendship of the Indians. This is not small praise to extend to any man, and certainly not when that man is a Spanish soldier of the eighteenth century. But Don Gaspar de Portola was better adapted to govern a conquered country, that to conquer and to explore a new one. That spirit of discovery, of romantic adventure, a spirit enhanced by dangers and difficulties, rather than subdued by them, was not his. It is not surprising, therefore, that immediately upon his return to San Diego he should determine to abandon the country and retrace his steps to Baja California. He was supported in this somewhat inglorious resolution by his officers, Captain Rivera y Moncada and Lieutenant Pedro Fages. The former was probably actuated in his acquiescence by indifference to the success of an enterprise in which he occupied so subordinate a place, while the latter did not possess judgment sufficient to recognize the mistake involved in such a retreat.

But there was a man of different spirit with the expedition who had sagacity to perceive the mistake and courage to combat it. Junipero's character seems to include qualities apparently the most contradictory. He possessed in an eminent degree that practical intelligence which in temporal affairs is essential to success. He was a great missionary, but an equally great pioneer. He recognized obstacles in his path, only to combat them. Neither disappointment nor danger nor the weariness of delay could move him from his purpose. He studied the resources of the country in which he found himself; learned its physical capacities and how best to employ the materials that were at hand. He disdained hardships. A peasant and priest, he had been trained from earliest youth to the greatest abstemiousness in the matter of material food and comforts.

A man of vigorous action, acute intelligence, having the endurance of the most daring explorer, indifferent to self-interest, influenced solely by motives of piety, it is not surprising that he resolutely refused to acknowledge the necessity of abandoning California. Portola's decision must, indeed, have appeared to him pitiably weak. Moreover, he was convinced that the port of Monterey had been rediscovered. His quick mind had recognized Vizcaino's landmarks locating Monterey, from the descriptions the explorers themselves gave of the port they had passed by. The diminishing food supplies did not in his opinion merit the importance attached to it by the officers. "What more do we need," he said, "than a tortilla a day and wild herbs of the field?" He reminded his compatriots that one hundred sixty-six years had elapsed since the Spaniards first discovered San Diego, and not till the present time had an attempt been made to establish a settlement. If they abandoned the country now, he feared centuries might elapse ere the Government would decide to send out another expedition.

It was already the month of March and neither of the two boats which were expected had appeared; the Venerable Father remained firm in his determination not to leave Alta California; he went to the ship to discuss this matter with the sea commander D. Vicente Vila and addressed him in this manner: Senor, the land commander has determined to retire and abandon this Port on the 10th if before then neither of the boats arrive with succor; he is impelled to this step because of the scarcity of provisions as well as the general opinion that the Port of Monterey] has been silted up although I suspect that they failed to recognize it. That is my opinion also [replied the commander], judging from that which I have heard and have read in the reports, the Port is in the very place where they raised the cross. Therefore Senor [said the Venerable Father] I am resolved to remain, even though the Expedition leaves, and with me, my colleague Father Crespi; if you wish, we will come aboard as soon as the Expedition leaves, and when the other packet boat arrives, we will go by sea and search for Monterey. The commander gladly agreed to assist him in this, and deciding to keep the matter secret, the Venerable Father returned to his Mission. [Palou, Vida, pp. 95-96.]

He may have thought to influence them through appeals to their patriotism, or through pride in achieving a noble but arduous task. Failing in this, he resorted to his last and strongest argument. With all the eloquence at his command he pleaded for the thousands of souls which would be left in the outer darkness of heathendom if the banner of the cross were now withdrawn. But his devout attachment to the cause upon which they were engaged failed lamentably to influence his companions. It is however likely that had it not been for Junipero's inflexible opposition, the disheartened Spaniards would have abandoned San Diego without further delay.

As it was, however, Portola ordered an inventory taken of the provisions. He then had a certain quantity put aside for their return journey, and calculating the length of time the remaining supplies would last, he fixed the day of departure for March 19, if in the meantime no transport arrived in the harbor. This resolution was publicly announced. The tidings were received by the men with shouts of joy. Their spirits rose to the highest pitch, although they thought the time of waiting had been made unnecessarily long, an opinion which the officers shared. Nothing was talked of but the approaching departure. Palou tells us that every word was like an arrow piercing the heart of Junipero. On his knees, day and night, he exhausted himself in prayer. An inward flame of overwhelming compassion for the savage multitude around them consumed him. With bitter sobs, with passionate outpourings of his soul, he implored the intercession of St. Joseph, the patron saint of the expedition, to speed the sailing of the supply ship that the port be not abandoned. He would arise from these impassioned prayers only to return to them again with renewed ardor. If he had been a mother pleading for the life of her first-born, his supplications could not have been more fervent. Every fiber of his being was like a quivering nerve at the thought of abandoning these miserable savages. He determined not to leave San Diego, even if he had to remain alone. He confided hick resolution to Fray Juan Crespi, who unhesitatingly declared his intention of remaining with him. Then he wrote to Palou, informing him of his determination not to desert his post. "If we see the food supplies and hope are to be exhausted, I will remain alone with P. Juan Crespi to hold out until the last extremity."

Thus simply did he announce to Palou his stout hearted determination.

It is characteristic of Junipero that he did not once urge his friend to hasten the forwarding of supplies or mention the kind of provisions which would be acceptable or necessary to them. He knew Palou would do his utmost to relieve the distress at San Diego; to dwell upon this distress was therefore purposeless. But there were other supplies, the lack of which gave him great concern, and these he carefully enumerates.

If your reverence should see that they are going to send the live stock which was left in Velicata, then send us a little incense, which we forgot in spite of the fact that we brought the incense-burners; and the Calendars might be sent if they have arrived, and the new Saintly Unctions in case they have arrived from Guadalajara. [Palou, Vida, p. 93]

These letters were carried south by Captain Rivera, who with some nineteen or twenty soldiers and a long train of pack mules left in February for Velicata to get the live stock Junipero refers to padre Vizcaino, whose hand was still causing him trouble, due to the arrow wound he had received the day of the attack on the mission, accompanied Rivera. Having written his letters, Junipero set about to see what influence he could bring to bear upon individual officers of the expedition. Captain Vila, commanding the crewless San Carlos, shared the friar's belief that Portola had rediscovered Monterey without recognizing he had done so, and that when he had erected the second cross he had in very truth marked the site of the lost harbor. Junipero, probably suspecting that the sea captain's opinion coincided with his own, determined to interview him privately on board his ship with the result that Captain Vila secretly promised to remain in San Diego with the two friars and await the arrival of the tardy transport and then sail up the coast to search for Monterey. In the meanwhile preparations for abandoning San Diego proceeded rapidly. As the date fixed for the departure drew near, Junipero proposed holding a novena (nine days of public prayer) in honor, of St. Joseph. The novena  was to culminate in a solemn mass and supplication on March 19, the day before the final one of abandoning California. The good-natured commander agreed readily enough to a plan which he probably conceived would in no way interfere with the ultimate one of departure. He himself, prayed and packed with commendable industry. Junipero's anxiety waxed daily greater. He prayed ceaselessly. The supreme morning arrived at last. This day was to determine the fate of California, of the Indians, of Junipero himself. The anxious friar could not rest. With the first faint streak of dawn he was abroad and on the hills. It was a beautiful morning. The air was soft and singularly still, as if listening to the heart throbs of Junipero. The blue bay sparkled in the sunlight the hills were radiant with bright flowers and spring verdure. California in the springtime is one of the rare places of the world; nature there seems to thrill deliciously with the consciousness of her own beauty.

But for once the Fray Junipero's heart was not susceptible to her influence. Sad and silent, he stood on the heights. With cowl thrown back and pale sensitive face turned seaward, his gaze swept the horizon. Would God send the ship that day? Would California be saved? Or would he, with his faithful brother and the doughty sailor, be left to challenge fate alone amidst the savages of this unknown land? Hour after hour glided by; the morning slowly passed, then the long afternoon; yet no glint of white sails shone on the sea. The suspense to Junipero was agonizing. Still he continued to watch and pray. Just as the last rays of the sinking sun were gilding the crests of the hills, there appeared "like a winged messenger from heaven," far out at sea, a sail. Junipero's heart bounded at the sight and into his haggard cheeks came the flush of joy. The news spread swiftly throughout the little settlement. Every man able to walk or hobble hurried down to the beach and strained his eyes to catch a glimpse through the deepening twilight of the distant ship. Then darkness fell over sea and land. Officers, soldiers, sailors, and friars returned to the mission to await with what patience they could the morrow. Junipero in the exuberance of his gratitude promised St. Joseph that he would chant a solemn mass in his honor on the nineteenth of every month. This promise he faithfully kept to the last days of his life.

The Spaniards were early astir the next morning. But the fond hope they had entertained of seeing a well-laden transport safely anchored in port was rudely dispelled. The keenest eye amongst them failed to descry upon the wide horizon the most distant sign of a sail. Nevertheless the fact that a ship had been distinctly visible the previous day was sufficient to arrest for a time further preparations for an immediate departure. Finally, four days after the first distant glimpse had been obtained of her, the ship, San Antonio, dropped anchor in the bay. Nine months had passed since she had left to obtain supplies for the little band of Spaniards in San Diego. She brought with her, besides plentiful provisions, a crew for the San Carlos. The San Antonio's commander, Juan Perez, had, on leaving San Bias, received orders to sail direct to Monterey, where it was confidently expected Portola would be found engaged in establishing the second California settlement. Perez accordingly passed San Diego without making port and sailed on up the coast. Running into the Santa' Barbara channel to obtain fresh water, he learned from the natives that his countrymen were not at Monterey but had long since returned to San Diego. This information, combined with the fact that his ship had lost an anchor, induced Perez to turn southward again. As we have seen, he arrived at San Diego just in time to prevent the abandonment, not only of the settlement, but of California.

The San Antonio  carried dispatches from the visitador general, Jose de Galvez, and from the Viceroy de Croix which perhaps caused Portola to feel grateful he had not already abandoned the country. Galvez was not the man to condone easily the relinquishment of an enterprise he had so enthusiastically fathered, and Portola might have found his position as officer in his Majesty's army subject to awkward limitations, while his pride would certainly have been confounded. Preparations in the mission now took on a different character. It was no longer a question of ingloriously retiring from the California conquest, but of energetically pushing it to a culmination. For Fray Junipero Serra this was a triumphant hour, and perhaps the happiest he had experienced since his ordination in the Franciscan brotherhood. After a consultation among the leaders of the expedition, it was decided to resume the search for Monterey without delay. That there should be no mistake in recognizing the port a second time, Junipero determined to be one of the exploring party himself.

It was arranged that he and Dr. Pedro Pratt should go by sea with Perez on the San Antonio, while Portola, with Fages, Padre Crespi, and part of the soldiers, marched up the coast over the same route they had previously traveled. These arrangements having been completed, Junipero states that he had

. . . already embarked all that could be carried except a bed, when on Holy Saturday very late, I received a message from the Captain, our citizen Don Juan Perez, that on that very night he had to hurriedly embark. [Palou, Vida, p. 98]

In all haste, Junipero went down to the beach and was taken on board the vessel. But the wind suddenly changed, and the next morning the San Antonio  lay becalmed in the mouth of the port, where she remained for twenty-four hours. Part of this time the friar, who appears to have abhorred every idle moment, occupied in writing letters. It was not an easy task. After concluding a letter to the "Seņor Illmo" (presumably the viceroy) he writes to Palou:

If I should not have time to write to the College to the Father Guardian I beg you to do so in my name, giving him an account of everything and inform hint; that this letter is written, while seated on the floor of the cabin, with considerable difficulty. [Palou, Vida, p. 99]

He recounts all that has transpired in San Diego since the arrival of Perez. We realize a little of his thirst for news during the long year in which not a word from the outside world has reached him, when he tells Palou with a touch of disappointment perceptible in the telling, that the San Antonio  did not bring him one letter. He then comments with eagerness on the gossip that Perez was able to retail, such as the death of Clement XIII. and the possible election of a new pope chosen from the Franciscan brotherhood, and adds, "In this wilderness I am greatly pleased at this good fortune." He cannot refrain from again reminding his friend to send the church supplies he asked for in his former letter.

When there is an opportunity I will appreciate it if you procure for us wax and incense for mass. . . Sea of the south—opposite port of San Diego, April 16, 1770 B. L. M. Your Reverence's affectionate friend, brother, servant. Fr. Junipero Serra. [Palou, Vida, p. 98-100]

It was extraordinary that a voyage of a few degrees up the coast, which in these days could be readily accomplished by the clumsiest of sailing crafts in a short period, should then have occupied almost seven weeks. Portola and his men had been in camp eight days ere the San Antonio  sighted Point Pinos, the thickly-wooded headland of the bay of Monterey. A great bonfire had been lighted on the Point to guide the ship into port. It appears that on this occasion Portola had experienced no difficulty in recognizing the harbor for which he had so long and so vainly searched but a few months before. Junipero was enchanted with the beauties of Monterey.

It lay folded in the protecting embrace of tree-clad hills. The fragrant odors of early summer filled the air, which here was healthfully invigorating after the hot, dry climate of San Diego. The light mistiness that in the first months of summer creeps up as the sun ascends, and frequently increases in density in the early hours of the afternoon, communicates a fresh, invigorating glow to the body, particularly grateful to one who comes from the enervating heat of the more southerly coast. The French traveler, La Perouse, who visited Monterey some sixteen years later, wrote:

Our European cultivators can form no conception of so abundant fertility. Fruit trees are still very scarce, but the climate is extremely proper for their cultivation and differs little from the southern provinces of France, at least the cold is never more intense, while the heats of summer are much more moderate on account of the continual fogs that prevail. [La Perouse, Voyage Round the World, pp 185-186.]

Towards evening this misty curtain slowly lifts and the sun sets over the sea with a glow of magical colors.

As the San Antonio  drew into the wide entrance of the bay and sailed down the shore, Junipero could see the tall forest trees on the hills, and distinguish the pine, the cypress, the beautiful live oak, the occidental plane trees, every tree growing in a kind of isolated grandeur in the midst of flower-spangled carpets of verdure, thereby giving the effect of beautiful parks, rather than of a wilderness.

Both on land and water, birds abounded. The long-winged gulls, the gray and white pelicans, their great pouches filled with fishes, the voracious cormorants, the pretty little sand-pipers, were perhaps those most seen from the San Antonio's  decks. It may also have been the time for the annual visit of the whales, the finbacks, the huge, rough hump-backs, or the sperm whale, and their spouting and lashing, breaking the smooth surface of the water into surging foam, may have added interest to the scenes of the newly found harbor.

Portola, Padre Crespi, Fages, and the soldiers were all on the beach to extend a hearty welcome to Fray Junipero and his companions as they disembarked. This reunion, however, was not without a touch of the tragic; the surgeon, Dr. Pratt, had become insane during the sea voyage. The ample supply of medicines he carried were unlabeled and remained, in consequence, useless to his companions. The Spaniards' first care was to erect a shelter of green boughs and suspend the large church bells. Their melodious peals proclaimed to the savages that a Christian worship, the first since 16oz, was about to be held on these shores. Fray Junipero, robed in alb and stole, sank on his knees and chanted in full, deep, sonorous voice, the Veni, Creator Spiritus. He sprinkled holy water over the land, "to put to rout all infernal foes." The ceremonies were concluded with chanting mass to the accompaniment of cannon crash and the roar of musketry. Don Gaspar Portola then stepped forward and loudly proclaimed that in the name of his most Catholic Majesty King Carlos III. he took possession of the land and would defend the same against all who would gainsay it. It was the usual fashion of asserting the royal title to territories in a new country, and like similar titles in the New World, whether established under English, French, or Spanish government, ignored with perfect simplicity the territorial rights of the aborigines.

Thus on June 3, 1770, Monterey and the surrounding country took their place as port and province of the great Spanish empire. When these duties to Castile and Christianity had been faithfully performed, the officers and friars seated themselves in the shade of a spreading oak, which grew near by, and ate their simple meal; while the soldiers sought ampler shade higher on the shore, where, free from restraint, they boisterously regaled themselves. During all this time the Indians were absent, or what is more probable, present and effectually concealed, an American Indian seldom being seen when he chooses not to be. Curiosity, however, soon induced the savages to approach the invading strangers.

[Illustration] from Junipero Serra by A. H. Fitch


Before many days had passed Fray Junipero succeeded by gifts and protestations of friendship in coaxing them to return frequently. From the first they were inclined to regard the Spaniards with something of awe. They brought propitiatory offerings which they laid at the foot of the large wooden cross Portola had caused to be erected near the shore on his first exploring expedition. Padre

Crespi tells in his journal that on his second return to Monterey he found the cross curiously decorated.

It was surrounded with arrows stuck in the ground and sticks with many feathers, which the Gentiles had placed there; suspended from a pole beside the cross was a string of small fish, all fairly fresh, while pieces of meat were deposited at the foot of the cross and a pile of mussels. [Crespi's Diary from Palou's Noticias.]

Later when the Indians had learned to make themselves understood, they told how they had seen a resplendent cross shining through the pockets of every Spaniard when they first arrived, and that the large cross at night became wonderfully illuminated and reached far up into the heavens, and they were alarmed and brought peace offerings to the foreigner's fetish. These tales show that the savages possessed a fair share of imagination as well as a quick perception of what, in their talk, would please the good and credulous padres. Junipero wrote an account some years later of these happenings (the truth of which he did not for an instant doubt), as evidence that the reduction of the "Gentiles" in this spiritual conquest was accomplished by direct divine intercession.

The business of selecting a suitable site for presidio  and mission soon occupied the attention of the Spaniards. Within a gunshot from the shore, cabins were erected; one was dedicated as a church. The buildings were inclosed by a palisade wall. A soldier and a young sailor volunteered to carry the tidings of the successful occupation of Monterey to San Diego, and from thence to the Peninsula. Junipero did not fail to seize this opportunity of writing to Palou. As with most of his letters to his friend, we can but be struck with the extraordinary character of the writer. Whatever privations, hardships, or fatigue he has experienced he passes over in silence or barely touches upon. The news he asks for is of popes, saints, and calendars, and the supplies he begs for are candles for his church services and more missionaries for future missions. The letter follows:

Beloved friend and my dear sir: On the 31st of May, by the favor of God, after a month and a half of a somewhat dangerous voyage, the vessel San Antonio, commanded by Captain D. Juan Perez, arrived and anchored in the beautiful port of Monterey, the same in reality and detail as that of the expedition of D. Sebastian Viscaino in 1603. I was much consoled when they told me that same night that eight days previously the land expedition had arrived, and with it Fr. Juan Crespi, and all in good health. On the day of Pentecost, third of June, were united all officials of the land and sea expedition and all the people in the ship. The fathers erected an altar, suspended and rang the bells, sang the hymn Veni Creator, blessed the water, erected and blessed the large cross and also the royal standards. Then mass was sung, the first known to have been celebrated here since [Sebastian Vizcaino's expedition.] Afterwards we sang the Salutation of Our Lady before the image which occupied the altar. We concluded the ceremony by singing the Te Deum  and after that the officials performed the act of taking possession of the land in the name of our master the king. (May God guard him.) Afterwards we ate together beneath some shade upon the beach. All the ceremonies were accompanied by many reports of firearms on land and ship. To God alone all honor and glory.

With respect to this port not having been found by those of the former expedition and their having announced that it did not exist I have nothing to say in regard to passing judgment upon them. Sufficient that it was finally found, and so were fulfilled though somewhat late, the wishes of His Excellency, the Inspector General, and all those who desire the spiritual conquest. As in May last was completed a year since I received my letter from Christian land, your reverence can imagine how thirsting we are for news. Above all I want to know, when the opportunity offers you, the name of our most saintly reigning pope, in order to include his name in the canon of the mass. And also if the canonization of the blessed Joseph Cupertino and Serafino de Asculi has been effected, and if there is any other saint or blessed one to put in the calendar and to pray for, since it appears that the printed calendars have already been despatched to us. If it is true that the Indians killed Padre Fray Joseph Soler in Sonora or Pimeria and how it happened, and if there are any other of the deceased of those known to us in order to commend them to God. And anything else which your reverence judges would by chance interest some poor hermits separated from human society. That which I would also like to know is concerning the mission from Spain and with regard to it. I charge you much and beg that two priests be designated for these missions, for with the four we could then distribute the six and place the mission of San Buenaventura in the canal of Santa Barbara, a landmark more advantageous than San Diego or Monterey or any other place yet discovered. Already there have been sent two shipments of supplies for said mission, and though up to now the priests cannot be blamed for not having founded the establishment, I would not like to exonerate them when there is a guard to protect them. [Palou, Vida, pp. 101-103.]

He tells Palou that he and Padre Crespi will divide their duties and that then the nearest priest to him will be eighty leagues away.

Therefore I beg your reverence not to leave us long in this cruel solitude. The Padre Lasuen greatly desires to come here to these missions and so I recommend him to your reverence, when the ministers consider this subject. We are very short of wax for the masses, as we were in San Diego, nevertheless we are going to have tomorrow a fiesta  and procession del Corpus  although it will be a poor one, to put to flight the evil spirits that may be in this land. If there be an occasion to send some [wax] it will be most opportune, as well as the incense previously requested. May your reverence not fail to write His Excellency and felicitate him on the discovery of the port and on whatever you may consider proper and do not fail to commend us to God; may he guard your reverence many years in His saintly love and grace.

Mission of San Carlos of Monterey, June, day of San Antonio de Padua, 1770. I kiss the hand of your reverence. Your affectionate friend, companion and servant, Fray Junipero Serra. [Palou received this letter six weeks after it was written.]

Three weeks after the young sailor and soldier, bearing Junipero's letter and his blessing, had started on their long overland journey to Baja California, Perez prepared for his return voyage to San Blas.

Before the sailing of the ship, Junipero spent hours in the seclusion of his hut, writing long letters to the authorities in Mexico, the viceroy, the visitador general  and the Guardian of San Fernando.

He never lost sight of the fact that it was essential to the progress of the spiritual conquest to keep alive the zeal and interest of the home government in the new province.

In his letters he gave an enthusiastic account of the country, its many natural advantages, the salubrity of its climate, the beauty of its scenery. He dwelt on the myriads of savages inhabiting the region between the frontier missions, San Fernando Velicata, and the port of San Francisco, the numerous and favorable sites for missions and pueblos, the need of more missionaries to assist in spreading the faith. He begged that the various requisites for founding missions, such as church utensils and implements of agriculture, be sent to him, and expressed his desire of forming a cordon of missions from Velicata to San Francisco which would not only facilitate communications with the old establishments, and thereby with Mexico, but bring Christianity and civilization to thousands of benighted beings.

Thus would Spanish civilization, Spanish rule, Spanish policy and commerce be permanently established in the new province. It was a tempting bait, this that Fray Junipero knew how to dangle before the eyes of the Spanish officials, but his motive was all sincerity, without hypocrisy or personal ambition. Spain could reap the material benefits of his work, he desired only to fasten the "yoke of the faith "on the children of this beautiful wilderness.

He entrusted his letters to Perez, who promised to forward them to Mexico as soon as his ship arrived in the harbor of San Blas.

On the ninth of July the San Antonio  spread her white sails, dipped her colors to the little band of Spaniards she was leaving in the wilderness, and flew southward before a fair wind for San Blass She carried with her Don Gasper de Portola, and) the engineer, Miguel Constanzo, whose entire duty while in California appears to have been surveying a site for the Monterey presidio. Portola, in accordance with his original instructions, turned his command over to the young Catalan officer, Lieutenant Pedro Fages, who now was left military commander, not only of the new presidio  but of California, with an army numbering something short of fifty men. From this time the good-natured Portola disappears entirely from California annals. He had led in the occupation of Alta California, and closed his governorship in March, 1770.

When Junipero's letters, bearing the tidings of the successful occupation of Monterey, finally reached Mexico, the greatest rejoicing was manifested. The cathedral bells were rung. From the convent and belfries of every church in the capital, gay chimes pealed forth. A solemn mass was held, which was attended by the visitador general, the viceroy, and all the Government officials. Afterwards a great reception was held in the viceregal palace during which Galvez and de Croix, magnificently attired, received, in the name of his Majesty Carlos III., the people's congratulations. Circulars were printed and distributed, giving an account of the occupation of Monterey, which were eagerly read by the populace. Liberal provisions were made for establishing five missions in the beautiful new California.

Galvez provided a government fund of one thousand dollars for each mission and offered four hundred dollars to the missionaries who would join those already in the new province. The Guardian of San Fernando college appointed ten additional friars to serve under Fray Junipero. Thus did the Spaniards proudly rejoice over the acquisition of a territory which in little more than half a century they were destined to lose forever.