South America - A Popular History - H. Butterworth

Tupac Amaru—the Inca Revolutionist

The first struggle for liberty against the Spanish dominion in Latin America was made by a descendant of the Incas—Tupac Amaru. The effort was a spasm; it ended in one of the most cruel and pitiable scenes of history; but its influence lived. The sympathetic reader may well inquire, after reviewing the tragedy of Amaru, will the spirit of the events that made Tupac Amaru the first apostle of liberty in the Peruvian highlands ever return again to the Quichua race in the ancient Incarial empire?

Visions become history, and patriots build, like the Hebrew legislator, after the pattern shown them on the mount. Washington, following the example of Cincinnatus, laid down the sword and took up the implements of husbandry, and dreamed, in Mount Vernon's gardens, of the time when all the nations of the world should make a compact of peace. This larger faith in humanity found expression in the International Conference of 1890, called the Pan-American Congress, whose inspiring spirit was the Hon. James G. Blaine, then the Secretary of State. Near the close of that memorable congress of the representatives of seventeen American republics, Mr. Blaine said:

"If in this closing hour the conference had but one deed to celebrate, we should dare call the world's attention to the deliberate, confident, solemn dedication of two great continents to peace, and to the prosperity which has peace for its foundation. We hold up this new Magna Charta, which abolishes war and substitutes arbitration between the American republics, as the first great fruit of the International American Conference. The noblest of Americans, the aged poet and philosopher Whittier, is the first to send his salutation and benediction, declaring:

"'If in the spirit of peace the American Conference agrees upon a rule of arbitration which shall make war in this hemisphere well-nigh impossible, its sessions will prove one of the most important events in the history of the world.'"

Such are the hopes of Latin and English America, for whose liberties from foreign dominion Tupac Amaru struck the first blow, and made himself the earliest martyr. The memory of the past haunted this native hero of liberty. In his veins flowed the blood of benefactors of his race who had reigned a thousand years. One of his ancestors, bearing his name, had dared to lead a rebellion against the tyranny of Spain in the dark days of the vice-royalty.

Tupac Amaru I. (too-pak ah-mah-roo), the Inca after whom this later hero was called, was born in Cuzco about 1540, and died there in 1573. He was the grandson of Atahualpa, and the second son of Manco Inca Yupanqui, who succeeded the unfortunate Atahualpa on the throne. The eldest son of Yupanqui, Sayri Tupac, submitted to the Spanish crown, and was baptized and given a place as sub-chief under the rule of the conquerors. On his death the Incarial succession fell to Tupac Amaru. This Indian had the spirit and pride of his ancestors. He refused to renounce his family claims in favor of the Spaniards, and aspired to restore his race to their pristine glory. He sought refuge in the mountains of Vilcabamba. The Peruvian Indians recognized him as the true Inca, the royal representative of the children of the Sun. For this reason the Spanish viceroy, Francisco de Toledo, determined to bring him within reach of his power. In 1572 the viceroy pretended to be sending troops to Chili, but he ordered two hundred and fifty of these auxiliaries to explore the mountain fortresses of Vilcabamba, and to capture the young prince and bring him to the viceroyalty.

Tupac Amaru met the invaders like a hero, but was again and again defeated by their superior arms and skill.

He then fled, with his family and followers, to the mountain fortresses of his principality, which he deemed impregnable. Before the rugged mountain walls rolled a stream which he believed no foreigner could cross without destruction.

Captain Martin de Loyola, in the service of the viceroy, resolved to cross this stream with twenty intrepid followers, under the cover of night. He suddenly appeared in the camp of the Inca, captured the prince, and carried him to Cuzco. He was there accused of leading a revolt, and was beheaded.

His descendant, Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, Amaru II., seems to have inherited his purpose and spirit. He dreamed of the independence of his people, and of the return of the first Inca in the glory of the rising sun.

Before we narrate the incidents of this hero's history, let us glance at the race from which he sprang.

There are great legends, worthy of noblest representation in poetry and art, that belong to the dusk of American tradition, to the twilight of the gods. They are fanciful, but they are parables, and are full of the noblest suggestions. One of these relates to Quetzalcohuatl, the mythic apostle from the eastern world to Guatemala, and to the golden age that arose under his preaching, when the birds sang never so sweetly, when the flowers bloomed never so brightly, when a single ear of corn taxed the strength of a man, and no violence was allowed to bird, beast or man. Quetzalcohuatl, of whom the beautiful bird of Guatemala, the quetzal, is still a reminder,—a bird that, according to John Lloyd Stephens, the explorer, is "the most beautiful thing that flies,"—is associated in an agreeable fable with the person of St. Thomas, the doubter, the apostle who said to the disciples, when Christ was about to take the ways of peril, "Let us go, that we may die with him." According to the old legends, which have received color from the beautiful sculptured cross found at Palenque, St. Thomas went to the Indian peninsula of Malabar, founded there the church that has lived in the Nestorians of Persia, and, according to an extension of the same fable, came to Mexico by the supposed way of Chinese Tartary, Bering Strait, and the West Pacific coast, and there appeared as Quetzalcohuatl. The legend, which has many forms, has, notwithstanding its absurdities, left us a picture of the golden age in America as poetic as Vergil's Pollio, and as interesting as the prophecy of the Cumaean sibyl.

The second great legend that awaits poetry and art is that which attributes the origin of the Peruvians to Jewish wanderers from Armenia, or from other parts of the Orient. This legend also has many forms.

A most interesting work published in 1854, entitled Peruvian Antiquities, by Mariano Eduardo de Rivero and Johann Jakob von Tschudi, translated by Francis L. Hawks, D.D., thus pictures some of the incidents of this great but improvable tradition:

"Passing by the proofs, more or less ingenious, advanced by Heckewelder, Beltrame, De Laet, Emanuel de Moraes, Beatty, Samuel Stanhope Smith, William Penn, Count Crawford, and many others, we will make particular mention of Adair, who lived forty years among the Indians, and who, after the most thorough examination and minute comparison, assures us that the origin of the Indians is Israelitish, founding his assertion principally on the religious rites, which plainly present many points of agreement with those of the Hebrew people.

"Like the Jews, the Indians offer their first-fruits; they keep their new moons, and the feast of expiation at the end of September or in the beginning of October; they divide the year into four seasons, corresponding with the Jewish festivals. According to Charlevoix and Long, the brother of a deceased husband receives his widow into his house as a guest, and after a suitable time considers her as a legitimate consort. There is also much analogy between the Hebrews and Indians in that which concerns various rites and customs, such as the ceremonies of purification, the use of the bath, the ointment of bear's grease, fasting, and the manner of prayer. The Indians likewise abstain from the blood of animals, as also from fish without scales; they consider divers quadrupeds unclean, as also certain birds and reptiles; and they are accustomed to offer as a holocaust the firstlings of the flock. Acosta and Emanuel de Moraes relate that various nations allow matrimony with those only of their own tribe or lineage, this being, in their view, a striking characteristic, very remarkable and of much weight. But that which most tends to fortify the opinion as to the Hebrew origin of the American tribes is a species of ark, seemingly like that of the Old Testament. This the Indians take with them to war. It is never permitted to touch the ground, but rests upon stones or pieces of wood, it being deemed sacrilegious and unlawful to open it or look into it. The priests scrupulously guard their sanctuary, and the high priest carries on his breast a white shell adorned with precious stones, which recalls the urim of the Jewish high priest, of whom we are also reminded by a band of white plumes on his forehead.

"According to the credible testimony of Adair, the Indians of North America celebrate the feast of first-fruits with religious dances, singing in chorus these mystic words: 'Yo Meschica, He Meschica, Va Meschica,' forming thus, with the three first syllables, the name of Jehovah, and the name of Messiah, thrice pronounced, following each initial. On other occasions may be heard in their hymns the words Aylo, Aylo, which correspond with the Hebrew word El, 'God.' In other hymns occur the words hiwah, hiwah, hydchyra, 'the immortal soul,' and Schiluhyo, Schiluhe, Schiluhva, of which Adair thinks that Schiluh  is the same with the Hebrew word Schaleach, or Schiloth, which signifies 'messenger' or 'pacificator.' The use of Hebrew words was not uncommon in the religious performances of the North American Indians, and Adair assures us that they called an accused or guilty person haksit canaha, 'a sinner of Canaan'; and to him who was inattentive to religious worship they said: 'Tschi haksit canaha'  (' You resemble a sinner of Canaan'). Lescarbot also tells us that he had heard the Indians of South America sing 'Alleluia.'

"Those authors who attribute a Hebrew origin to the American tribes do not agree among themselves touching the coming of the Israelites into the New World: some think that they came directly from the eastern hemisphere to the West, and established themselves in the central and southern parts of this hemisphere; but the majority are of the opinion that they crossed Persia and the frontiers of China, and came by the way of Bering Strait."

A writer named Montesinos would have us believe that the Peruvians came from Armenia, that here were King Solomon's mines; and he dates the events of poetic history from the deluge, of which the Peruvians seem to have traditions.

Several curious writers have attempted to prove that the first Inca, Manco Capac, and the poetic divinity of Mexico, Quetzalcohuatl, were Buddhist missionary priests.

In a work like ours, which seeks to tell the story of liberty and progress in Latin America, to picture an advance in civilization by incidents, a study of the Incarial period would not be expected; but a glance at that wonder of romance is permissible, as it associates itself with an heroic revolution in which one of Inca blood was a leader.

Gonzalo Pizarro and Prescott have pictured the Incas in their glory. The authority of the Peruvian monarchs exceeded that of the most powerful kings of the eastern world. Under the dominion of Huaina Capac the Inca empire extended from the regions north of Quito to the river Maule in Chili, or eight hundred leagues, thus exceeding the greatest empire in Europe, and was bounded on the west by the Pacific, and on the east by the pampas. It contained some ten millions of inhabitants, a number that greatly diminished after the conquest.

Over this glittering empire the Inca was the absolute lord. "The very birds will suspend their flight if I command it," said Atahualpa to the Spanish invaders, in the fabulous language of the Peruvian kings.

According to Garcilasso de la Vega, himself of Inca blood, the government of the Incas was paternal. One only needs to read Garcilasso's wonderful book to be convinced that Mr. Bellamy's prophetic retrospect entitled Looking Backward  has already largely been enacted in the theater of the Andean world. Some of the accounts of the glory of the Incas seem to belong, indeed, to the dazzling epoch of fables. Plutarch tells us that the birds in the air were affected when the Roman herald proclaimed the liberty of the Greeks; and Sarmiento, in his Revolution, says the shouts that hailed the Inca on his pilgrimages among his people caused "the birds to fall to the ground."

The ancient Peruvian realm was one of equality and fraternity. The people were like one family, of which the Inca was the father. None were rich, none poor. All labored for the good of the whole, and the labor was not exacting. Age and infancy were alike protected. The temples were opened to all; the delights of the festivals were shared by all; the bards sang for all; and the people rejoiced together in the golden gardens of Yucay.

The memory of the Incarial festivals was the light of the past. In those days the highways were strewn with flowers. The worshipers on the hills acclaimed with delight the rising of the sun, wondering if that would be the day when the first Inca would return to the world again. The sun's rays filled with a golden light the crystal crowns of the Andes; hymns were sung in the white processions bearing the Inca lilies; drums were beaten, trumpets were blown, and bells, silver and golden, added their music to the choruses of joy. The sun's rays met the rays reflected by the gold in the great temple, from the golden roof of which were taken seven hundred plates, each as heavy as four men could bear, for the redemption of Atahualpa. The priests bowed down to the reflected splendor.

The scene is Cuzco. A mighty and shadowy fortress lifts itself over the city. The wall facing the city is precipitous, is twelve hundred feet long, and sustains three colossal towers. This Cyclopean wall has been so built that it seems to be but a single stone; the blade of a knife could not be inserted into its seams. The sun appears above the mountains. The city bursts into song. A long procession, led by the royal family and priests, takes up its march for the golden gardens of Yucay, which surpassed those of Cashmere. The young Inca, just proclaimed, walks beside his father. He wears on his head the insignia of the llanta, with two feathers from the sacred bird of the kingdom, the coraquenque. In his ears are hung golden orejones, or heavy pendants. He supports a girdle of jewels, the colors of which typify the virtues. The sun in the sky becomes a fiery splendor as the procession approaches Yucay, the gardens of delight, some twelve miles from the Temple of the Sun. The maize that adorned the temple was made of gold, with husks of silver and tassels of silk. The flowers were of gold, emeralds and precious stones. In front of the procession is borne the jeweled banner of the iris. The procession enters the gardens amid the songs of bards, the music of viols, and banks of flowers. Dances follow. At a festival given in the gardens of Yucay in honor of the birth of Huascar, son of Huaina Capac, the nobles danced to a chain of gold seven hundred feet long, with links nearly as large as a man's wrist. A festival was held at Quito during which the rising moon shone upon a temple of silver situated on a high hill. It filled the temple with living splendor.

The people were happy. They believed in an ineffable God that ruled all the world. The sun was his message to them, and the Incas were the human interpreters of his will.

The meridional world, or what is now Alta Peru, or Ecuador and Bolivia, may not, indeed, have been the Ophir of old, but it was a golden empire. Francisco Lopez de Gomara thus describes the house of the Inca: "All the service was of gold and silver, except copper, which was used for strength. They say that the Incas had a flower-garden by the sea, where the trees and flowers were of gold and silver." To this the opulent Garcilasso de la Vega, of Inca blood, adds: "In all of them were gardens and orchards, where the Inca refreshed himself. In them were planted all the fine and beautiful trees and odoriferous plants which abounded in the kingdom, after which models they imitated in gold and silver many trees and other smaller bushes most perfectly, with their leaves, flowers and fruits; some seemed about to bud, others were half ripened or matured, and others entire and perfect in their size. Besides these and others, they made counterfeit resemblances of various species of corn, with their leaves, ear and stem, with their roots and flowers; the fibers which are found in the ear and stem were of gold, and all the rest of silver, soldered together. The same difference was made in the other plants, so that the flower, or whatever other part inclined to yellow, was imitated in gold, and the rest in silver. There were also to be seen animals, large and small, cast in gold and silver, such as rabbits, lizards, snakes, butterflies, foxes and mountain-cats; also birds of all descriptions, some placed in the trees as if singing, others flying about and sucking the honey from the flowers. There were also deer and fawns, lions and tigers, and all the other animals and birds which the country produced, each in its place, as true to nature as the reality. In many houses there were baths with large jars of silver and gold, from which water was poured into the baths. Where there were natural fountains of warm water there were also baths of great splendor and richness. Among other displays of wealth, there were collections of billets of wood, imitated in gold and silver, as though they were deposited to be expended in the service of the houses."

The Inca roads, a part of which were constructed in the period of Yupanqui, were as marvelous as the temples and golden gardens. Humboldt describes these roads, which filled him with wonder. Lopez de Gomara says: "There were two royal roads from the city of Quito to that of Cuzco,—very costly and noble works,—the one over the mountains, the other across the plains, each extending more than a thousand miles. The one which crossed the plains was walled on both sides, was twenty-five feet broad, with ditches of water outside, and was planted with trees called molle. The other, which was on the mountain, was also twenty-five feet wide, cut in some places from the solid rock, and in others made of stone and lime; for, indeed, it was necessary to cut away the rocks or fill up the valleys to bring the road to a level. It was a work which, as all agree, exceeded the pyramids of Egypt, the paved ways of the Romans, and, indeed, all other ancient works. Huayna Capac restored, enlarged, and completed these roads; but he did not build them entirely, as some assert, nor could they have been wholly constructed in his lifetime. These roads went in a direct line, without turning aside for hills, mountains, or even lakes. For resting-places they had certain grand palaces, which were called tambos, where the court and royal army lodged. These tambos were provided with arms, food, shoes and clothing for the troops. In their civil wars the Spaniards destroyed these roads to impede the march of their enemies. The Indians themselves demolished a part of them when they waged war and laid siege to the cities of Cuzco and Lima, where the Spaniards were."

The betrayal of Atahualpa, the last Inca before the conquest, and his tragic death, have often been pictured.

There was one Spaniard, by name Lejesema, or Lequizano, a conquistador of quick conscience, who, although a soldier, came eventually to see the robbery of the Inca empire in its true light. He was the last of the conquerors. In his old age he was truly penitent for the part he had taken in the great crime against humanity, and he trembled before God. He had received as his share of the robbery of the Incas the golden image in the Temple of the Sun—the golden sun of the empire. The latter was a huge plate of burnished gold, round like a shield, with rays that spread over the sacred face of the temple, that reflected the sun at its rising.

In his early life Lejesema was a noted gambler. Gambling seems to have been a passion with him. After receiving the golden sun of the gods as his share of the robbery, which would have brought him wealth and fame, it would seem that he could desire nothing more. But the passion for gambling haunted his soul. He staked the golden sun of Peru one night, and lost. Hence arose the proverb in Spain in regard to an all-controlling passion: "Juega el sol antes que amanezca"  ("He gambles away the sun before sunrise ").

When this man had repented he desired that Spain should know the truth in regard to the nobility of the Peruvians, and the wrong that had been done them in the name of religion. So out of his tortured soul was wrung a remarkable confession, for which we are indebted to Prescott.

The line of the Incas was as follows (from Peruvian Antiquities):

  1. Manco Capac began to reign in the year 1021, and died in Io62, after reigning forty years.
  2. Sinchi Rocca reigned thirty years, from Io62 to 1091.
  3. Lloqque Yupanqui reigned thirty-five years, from I091 to 1126.
  4. Mayta Capac began to reign in 1126, reigned thirty years, and died in 1156.
  5. Capac Yupanqui inherited the power in the year 1156, reigned forty-one years, and died in 1197.
  6. Inca Rocca began to reign in 1197, and died in 1249, after having reigned fifty-one years.
  7. Yahuar Huaccac had a reign of forty years, from 1249 to 1296; seven of these he passed in private life, after having renounced in 1289, in favor of his son Viracocha.
  8. Viracocha occupied the throne from the year 1289, and died in 1340. This Inca predicted the ruin of the empire, and the arrival of white and bearded men. His son, Inca Urco, reigned only eleven days, being deposed by the nobles of the empire as a fool and incapable of governing.
  9. Titu Manco Capac Pachacutec came to the crown in the year 1340, reigned sixty years, and died in 1400, after having lived, according to tradition, a hundred and three years.
  10. Yupanqui inherited the regal power in the year 1400, reigned thirty-nine years, and died in 1439.
  11. Tupac Yupanqui reigned from the year 1439, and died in 1475, after thirty-six years' reign.
  12. Huayna Capac succeeded Tupac Yupanqui in the year 1475, reigned fifty years, and died in 1525. This chief was considered the most glorious of all the Peruvian monarchs.
  13. Huascar received the crown in 1526, reigned seven years, and died in 1532.
  14. Atahuallpa, orAtahualpa, began to reign in the year 1532, governed the whole empire for one year and four months, after having reigned six years in Quito only, and died on the scaffold, by order of Pizarro, in the public square of Cajamarca, the 29th of August, 1533.

"After the conquest of the Spaniards, the brother of both the preceding monarchs was crowned as Manco Capac II. He reigned with a light shadow of royal dignity until the year 1553. He was succeeded by his three sons, Sayri Tupac, Cusititu Yupanqui, and Tupac Amaru. This last was beheaded in Cuzco, in the year 1571, by order of Don Francisco de Toledo, fifth viceroy of Peru."

Tupac Amaru the younger was the fifth in descent from Inca Tupac Amaru, who had been put to death in 1571. His name as a subject of the viceroy was Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui. He was educated at the college at Cuzco, amid scenes that daily recalled the glory of his ancestors and the injustice that had been done to his race. The college had been founded for the education of Indian chiefs. The youth learned the Spanish language. He seems to have been an apt scholar. To a high spirit and natural gifts he added many polite accomplishments. But his heart throbbed for his people. The Spanish rule over them had reduced them to slavery. The mita, or forced labor, not only made them slaves, but victims of merciless cruelty. They toiled without recompense, and suffered without justice. They were helpless.

Tupac Amaru began his career as a petitioner for justice to his race. He was brought into association with Spanish priests and officers, and to them he presented the misery of the Indians, and begged them to reform the laws in regard to servitude. His appeals met with no response. Labor under the lash went on, and the young Inca's heart could do little but bleed. He had an income from an estate. Out of this he assisted those in need, paid the taxes of the poor, and sheltered those who in their poverty and despair turned to him for assistance. He seems to have been a man of great dignity of deportment, and of a philosophic temperament. He was one who loved others better than himself, and whose deeds were an honor to humanity.

His father was a cacique, or tributary chief. Tupac Amaru succeeded him at the age of twenty. His province was Tungasuca, a high plateau of the Andes, one of the winter lands of the sea. The cry of the wrongs of his race found him there, and gave him no peace. He sought in every way to obtain redress for the slaves of the hateful mita. His mission was met only by excuses or scorn. The thought of the liberation of the Indians became sweet to him in his Andean fortress. The Spaniards were merely robbers of the country, who put might for right. The whole land groaned under their tyranny. Why could not their power be overthrown by the union of all the people whom they oppressed, and why might not the lands of the Sun be made independent and free? His dream of liberty grew, and was stimulated by new cases of cruelty and injustice. It was but the dream of an Adams, a Lafayette, a Miranda, a Bolivar.

The governor of Tinta, near Lima, was one of the most merciless of the oppressors of the Indians. Tupac Amaru formed a plan for rescuing his people from the power of this tyrant. He led a force against him, arrested him, brought him to Tungasuca, and put him to death. The Indians now flocked around Tupac Amaru. An army was formed. The oppressed people were eager to be led against their taskmasters. Tupac Amaru descended from the hills with an army that constantly grew stronger. He faced Cuzco, and found the city of his ancestors in his power. He liberated the workmen in the Spanish factories, and set at naught the mita. He was advancing like a conqueror when the Spanish officials met and asked for negotiations. With a sense of his own honor, and trusting to the justice of his cause, he consented to open negotiations with his crafty enemies. He formed a protected camp, and issued a proclamation setting forth the grievances of his race, and calling upon all the people to rise and make a common cause for liberty. The proclamation was circulated throughout the country. The people flocked to Tinta, and hailed the Inca as their deliverer. The Peruvians, with arms in their hands, for a brief time breathed the air of liberty.

Tupac Amaru now addressed letters to the bishop and to the officers of the municipality, asking for those measures of justice which are the birthright of all men. The whole population of Peru was now rising. The viceroy was alarmed. In February, 1781, a Spanish force was gathered to march against the Inca, who was still proposing a negotiation by which reforms might be secured peaceably. It was justice that the Inca desired, not blood. The answer came, as brutal as if from the regions beyond mercy: "We refuse all negotiation. If you will surrender now, the torture of your execution may be lessened." Tupac Amaru could do but one of two things: conquer a peace for the liberty of the people, or surrender and die. He was at the head of two hundred thousand men who were looking to him for salvation from a living death. The people thought that they saw in him the return of the Incas and of the golden age. He must strike for the independence of the slaves of the mita. A battle was fought. The rude army of patriots under the Inca was defeated, and driven back in disorder at the point of the Spanish bayonet. Tupac Amaru and his family were made captives.

On May 18, 1781, the conqueror issued a proclamation which caused humanity to shudder. The Inca with his family was to be publicly executed. His tongue was to be cut out; he was to be tied to four horses by his arms and legs, and to be drawn asunder as the horses should be led four different ways. It was a refinement of old Spanish cruelty. The infernal imaginations of the tyrants of those dark days have found but few equals in the records of mankind. The Inca was first made to suffer mentally and emotionally by witnessing the torture of his family. His uncle, an old man, had his tongue cut out, and was then strangled by an iron screw. His son, a youth of twenty, was then subjected to the same horrible tortures, in sight of the Inca. Then his wife was led into view, and her tongue torn out, and the screw applied to her neck. His youngest boy of ten years was compelled to witness these scenes. The Inca was then tortured by the knife, and lassos tied to the girths of four horses were fastened to his arms and ankles. The horses were headed in four different ways. They moved, and the bleeding form of the Inca rose in air. As the young son of the Inca saw the spectacle, he uttered a piercing shriek. The hearts of the Spaniards who heard that cry shrank with horror. It is said that the boy's voice haunted for a lifetime the people who heard it. Says a writer: "It was the death-knell of the Spanish colonial dominion." For there were Spanish hearts that could feel, even in the days of the viceroys. An evil priest had said to Pizarro, "I absolve thee," as he urged Pizarro to seize Atahualpa. But there were good priests as well as the agents of cruelty. There were patriot priests whose country was the world, and whose countrymen were all who live.

Liberty in South America began in the patriot clubs of London and Caracas. There was formed a club in Lima in silent memory of this and similar events. It was a club of silence, but it had a powerful purpose. Sympathetic priests, literary men, and Spanish women with the hearts of mothers joined that club. It grew. Its purpose was to secure justice to all, and the protection of the rights of all men. The club prepared the way for liberty. Tupac Amaru's death was to abolish the mita and to liberate his people. Of all martyrs of liberty, none ever died under more heartrending circumstances than he who was torn asunder in the great square of Cuzco, amid the fallen temples of his despoiled people.

So sadly but nobly perished the last son of the Incas, the first apostle of liberty in Latin America.