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Anglo-Scottish Wars

1093 to 1550

English — versus — Scottish


Introduction : 


The grandest of all Anglo-Scottish Wars, were of course, the Scottish Wars of Independence fought in the late 13th and early 14th century. These wars are of such great interest they are considered separately, as are the Anglo-Scottish conflicts that occurred during the English Civil Wars (1639-1651). There have, however, been a long series of minor wars between Scotland and England, throughout their histories. The following are most of the notable Anglo-Scottish Wars that occurred after the Norman conquest in 1066, and before the Act of Union, in 1707, when Scotland and England were joined together to form Great Britain. The only significant wars that occurred between England and Scotland after their Union were the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715 and 1745.


Malcolm Canmore: Revolt against William Rufus : 1093


Malcolm Canmore was king of Scotland during the period immediately following the Norman Conquest. He was on good terms with the Saxons, and his second wife, Saint Margaret of Scotland, was the Sister of the deposed Wessex heir to the throne. Many of the Saxon nobles fled to Scotland after the invasion, and accompanied Malcolm in raiding expeditions in Northumbria. William the Conqueror brought an army to Scotland, but Malcolm made peace with him, which continued as long as the conqueror lived. When William Rufus ascended to the throne however, conflict broke out between them. Malcolm resumed his raiding expeditions in the south, but in 1093 was ambushed and killed by the Earl of Northumbria.



Battle / Outcome
Description
Battle of Alne
English defeat Scots
Fought November 13, 1093, between the Scots under Malcolm Canmore and the English. The Scots were totally defeated, and Malcolm and his eldest son Edward slain in the battle.



Commander
Short Biography
Malcolm Canmore Long reigning King of Scotland, married St. Margaret, befriended Saxon exiles from Normans.
William II of England Son of William the Conqueror. A bad and brutal king. Killed in the New Forest.


David I : Revolt against Stephen : 1138


When Henry I died without a son, he tried to pass the kingdom on to his daughter Matilda. However, her cousin Stephen seized the throne on the death of Henry I. David I of Scotland was the uncle of Matilda, and led and army into England to fight for the crown on her behalf. He was defeated at the Battle of the Standard however, and returned to Scotland. Matilda did briefly win the throne, but the barons turned against her and the throne devolved again to Stephen. On the death of Stephen however, Henry II, the son of Matilda, assumed the throne.



Battle / Outcome
Description
Battle of the Standard
English defeat Scots
Fought at Luton Moor, near Northallerton, in 1138, between the Scots, under David, and the English, under Thurstan, Archbishop of York, and Raoul, Bishop of Durham. The Scots were routed, and fled in disorder. The battle derives its name from the fact that the banner of St. Cuthbert of Durham, which was held to ensure victory, that of St. Peter of York, and those of other saints, were carried in a waggon in the midst of the English army.



Commander
Short Biography
David I of Scotland Son of Malcolm Canmore. Sought to help restore his niece Matilda to the throne.



Anglo-Scottish Border Raids : starting from 1357



 But, thanks be to God, there are few of my ancestors who have died in their beds.

The Scottish Wars of Independence lasted until 1357 and after that time an uneasy peace reigned between England as Scotland. After the truce was up however, the Scots resumed their habit of border raids into England on the slightest provocation. The Douglas clan was in high favor during this time, and led several of the more famous raids, while their arch-nemesis, the Percy family opposed them.



Battle / Outcome
Description
Battle of Otterburn
Scots defeat English
Fought August 19, 1388, between 9,000 English, under Henry Percy (Hotspur) and a greatly inferior force of Scots, under Earls Douglas and Murray. Hotspur attacked the Scottish entrenchments, and was totally defeated, with a loss of about 2,000. The battle is celebrated in the old ballad of "Chevy Chace."
Battle of Homildon Hill
English defeat Scots
Fought September, 1402, when the Percies lay in wait for a Scottish force, under Murdach Stewart, and Archibald, Earl of Douglas, who were returning from a foray into England. The Scots were totally routed, losing Stewart, 4 Scottish peers, and 80 gentlemen of rank.



Commander
Short Biography
James Douglas Leader of the Douglas clan; Fought border wars with the English. Killed after Otterburn.
Henry Hotspur Percy Arch-nemesis of the Douglas clan. Led English at Battle of Otterburn.
Archibald Douglas Leader of the Doublas clan; Fought border wars with the English.



James II of Scotland: The Siege of Roxburgh : 1460


Another famous border battle that occurred in Scotland during the War of the Roses in England was the Battle of Roxburgh. James II took advantage of the chaos going on in England to besiege the fortress of Roxburgh, one of the last castles held by the English. While directing the firing of a cannon, James II was killed, but his men continued the siege and destroyed the fortress. The battle is significant not only for the death of the king, but because it marks the first time the Scots used heavy artillery.



Battle / Outcome
Description
Siege of Roxburgh
Scots defeat English
This town, defended by an English garrison, was besieged by the Scots, under James II of Scotland, in 1460, and after a stubborn defense was captured and destroyed. This is the first occasion on which artillery was used by the Scots. During the siege the Scottish king was killed by the bursting of a gun of large calibre, August 3, 1460.



Commander
Short Biography
James II of Scotland King of Scots who brought rebel Barons under control. Destroyed power of Black Douglases. Died at Roxburgh.


James IV: War of the Holy League and Flodden Field : 1513


angloscot
 The Battle of Flodden field

In 1512 Henry VIII of England, who had not yet broken with Rome, joined the Papal states in declaring war on France. His practical motivation for doing so was as an excuse to attack France at a time when she was fighting other enemies in the south, in hopes of winning more territory in the north. France however, had a long-standing agreement with Scotland that if she should be attacked by England, Scotland would attack England in the North, thus dividing her army. The Battle of Flodden Field, which proved to be an utter disaster for Scotland, was initiated therefore, as a result of a conflict that had absolutely nothing to do with Scotland. James IV was killed, along with many Scottish nobles, and the Scotland was greatly weakened because of it.



Battle / Outcome
Description
Battle of Flodden
English defeat Scots
Fought September 9, 1513, when the English, under the Earl of Surrey, attacked the Scots, under James IV, in a strong position on the hill of Flodden. The position was turned by the English left wing, under Stanley, and the Scots totally defeated with heavy losses. James and all his principal nobles fell.



Commander
Short Biography
James IV of Scotland Strong and effective ruler of Scotland. Brought the Barons under control. Died at Flodden Field.



James V: Betrothal of Mary, Queen of Scots : 1542-1547


When Henry VIII broke with Rome, he sought to persuade his nephew James V to break also, but James refused. For this and other reasons, Henry sent a raiding party into Scotland, and Scotland retaliated. The Scottish campaign of Solway Moss, however, turned into another route, and Scotland was again humiliated. James V died two weeks later, leaving a one week old daughter, Mary Stuart, as Queen of Scotland. The immediate object of England was now to to assume control of Scotland by betrothing Mary to Edward, the son of Henry VIII. With this mission mind, England tried persuasion, bribery, and finally force, to arrange a betrothal. The issue help open up a rift that was forming in Scotland between those barons that were loyal to Rome, and those that were sympathetic to the Protestant cause. In the end, England won a great battle against Scotland, and was in a position to dictate terms, but Scotland refused to be imposed upon, and smuggled the young princess to France. This series of wars is sometimes called the "Rough Wooing".



Battle / Outcome
Description
Battle of Solway Moss
English defeat Scots
Fought December 14, 1542, between the Scottish invading army, under Oliver Sinclair, and a band of 500 English borderers, under Thomas Dacre and John Musgrave. The Scots were totally defeated, and many important nobles captured.
Battle of Ancrum Moor
Scots defeat English
Fought February 17, 1545, between the English under Sir Ralph Evans, and the Scots under the Earl of Angus. The Borderers who had joined the English deserted during the action, with the result that the Scots were completely victorious.
Battle of Pinkie Cleugh
English defeat Scots
Fought September, 1547, between the Scots, under the Earl of Huntly, and the English, under the Protector Somerset. The Scots crossed the Esk, and attacked the English lines, at first with success, but they were thrown into confusion by a charge of cavalry, and in the end fled from the field with heavy loss.



Commander
Short Biography
James V of Scotland Father of Mary Stuart. He was defeated in battle and died shortly after Mary was born.
Duke of Somerset Regent for Edward VI who imposed the Book of Common Prayer on all of England.