~ Our Library ~

~ Study Aids ~

~ More Info ~

~ Our Products ~

~ About Our ~

~ Your Order ~

Sir Robert Peel

Civilization:British: England
Era: Victorian
1788–1850Field of Renown:statesman: Prime Minister
 Robert Peel

Robert Peel was a gifted and influential politician who was leader of the Tory party during the mid 19th century. Peel was a thoroughly British Victorian Gentleman complete with a Cambridge degree in Classics, a large and prosperous family, and a trust fund. Even so, he showed considerable courage and character in his political career. His evolution in political principles on several important issues, including Parliamentary reform (offering the franchise to middle-class as well as upper-class citizens), Catholic Emancipation (permitting Catholics to vote and to hold political office), and abolition of Corn-laws (ending protective tariffs on food-stuffs), was critical in transitioning the political division of Britain from Whig-Tory to Liberal-Conservative. By the end of this administration, a faction of the Tory Party had split off to become Peelites, and a within a generation, the Whigs and Radicals combined with the Peelites to form the Liberal party.

The terms "Liberal", "Conservative", "Tory" and "Whig" as party affiliations, mean quite different things today than they did in 19th century Britain so it is difficult to comprehend exactly what this transition meant without a solid understanding of political philosophy, but a few points of background can be pointed out. First, Peel and his cohorts came of age shortly after the French Revolution so the memory of revolution, anarchy, and bloodshed was still quite vivid, and the idea granting political power to an angry, dispossessed people such as the Irish struck many as exceedingly dangerous. Second, the ideas associated with the doctrine of "free-trade" as advocated by Adam Smith had been seeping into the political consciousness of both parties for decades, but the concept of applying these principles to agriculture and food-stuffs was utterly beyond the pale for many, and is still a highly contentious issue, (witness modern farm subsidies).

On the issues of both Catholic Emancipation, and Abolition of Corn Laws, Peel took a position in direct opposition to that of most of the Tory Party, of which he was a leader. In both cases he paid an immediate political sacrifice. Before he supported Catholic Emancipation he resigned from his position as MP of Oxford because he had been elected by Anglican priests who were uniformly opposed to the idea. When he supported abolition of the Corn Laws he knew perfectly well it would bring down his Tory Government and cost him his position as Prime Minister, and it did. He voted his conscience and paid the price.

Key events during the life of Sir Robert Peel

Year Event
1788 Robert Peel born to a wealthy industrial family.
  Studies mathematics and classics at Oxford.
1809 Election to the House of Commons from a 'rotten' borough. Ran as a Tory
1817 Became MP for Oxford University.
1822 Entered Cabinet as Home Secretary.
1829 Established the "Scotland Yard", a municipal police force.
1829 Supported Catholic emancipation and resigned as MP from Oxford.
1832 Reform bill of 1832 reforms parliament and expands the franchise.
1834 Elected Prime Minister but without a Tory majority. Withdrew after one year.
1841 Elected as Prime Minister for six years.
1845 Irish potato famine precipitates crisis in government.
1846 Passed a bill abolishing the Corn laws against strong opposition. Collapsed Tory government.
1850 Died following a horse accident in Hyde Park.


Story LinksBook Links
From Waterloo to Sevastopol  in  Hanoverians  by  Gaskoin
Period of Reform (1815-1837)  in  Story of England  by  Harding

Image Links
Sir Robert Peel  in Hanoverians A noticable figure on his grey Arab mare.  in Life of Gladstone Sir Robert Peel  in Life of Gladstone
Sir Robert Peel  in Reign of Queen Victoria

Contemporary Short Biography
Duke of Wellington Napoleonic war general who fought in Spain and Portugal. Defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.
Daniel O'Connell Political leader of Irish Catholics during early 19th century. Promoted Catholic Emancipation.
William Gladstone Prime minister and member of the Liberal Party. Opponent of Disraeli.
Victoria of Great Britain Longest reigning English Monarch. Presided over the British Empire at its height.
Melbourne Leader of the Whig party during the mid 19th century.
William IV King of Britain who reigned during the 'reform' period in the 1830's.