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Ferdinand Magellan

Civilization:Hispanic: Portugal
Era: Exploration
1480–1521Field of Renown:explorer: Pacific Ocean
Magellan
 Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan organized the first voyage which successfully circumnaviated the globe, and in the process discovered the Straights of Magellan, the Philippines, and several other important geographical landmarks. His momentous expedition was considred a great success even though only 18 of over 200 crewmen returned alive, and Magellan himself was not one of them. He is credited with being the first person to circumnaviate the globe, however, since he was not killed until after reaching the Far East, and he had traveled extensively in the region on prior voyages.

In 1498 the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and established a trade route for the Portuguese to the Far East. Seven years after his return, Ferdinand Magellan joined another Portuguese expedition, led by Francisco Almeida to India. He participated in the Battle of Dui and spent years sailing the region for Portugal under both Almeida and Albuquerque. Eventually, however, Magellan fell out of favor with his superiors due to accusations of illegal trading. Magellan sought to defend himself from these charges, but to no avail. By 1514 he was back in Portugal without employment, and with powerful enemies at the Portuguese court.

In 1513, Balboa had discovered the Pacific Ocean. Magellan was a talented sailor with a broad knowledge of the Far East, and conceived of the idea of sailing to the far east by finding a passage through the new world. After presenting his idea first to the King of Portugal, he proceded to the Court of Charles V, where he gained a much more positive reception. Spain was especially eager to pursue the idea of a western route to the east in order to rival Portugal, which had already established itself in the region.

After several years of preparation, Magellan was provided with five ships and about 250 sailors for his voyage. They embarked from Seville, in August 1519 and by January 1520 reached Rio de la Plata, south of Brazil. At this point, Magellan had to proceed carefully. No passage around the Cape of South America was known at the time, and the waters were rocky and treacherous. One of the ships was lost on a scouting expedition, one returned to Spain, and a minor mutiny was averted. Finally, on November 28, three of the ships successfully negotiated the Straights of Magellan, and entered the Pacific Ocean.

It took only a little over three months to cross the Pacific, and the fleet reached Guam safely in March 1521. From there they proceded to the Philippines, which were unknown to Magellan, since his previous travels in the region had not taken him so far North. It occurred to Magellan to befriend the local king and claim the region for Spain, and so he agreed to aid a local chieftain in one of his battles. This turned into a very costly skirmish—the natives used poison arrows and Magellen and many of the other sailors were killed. The command of the expedition turned to Juan Elcano, who loaded up two of the remaining ships with spices and other valuables before attempting to return to Spain. The return journey was complicated by the fact that the Portuguese were dominant in the region, and were somewhat hostile to the Spanish venture. On of the ships was captured by the Portuguese, and the other was forced to dock at a Portuguese station before returning to Spain. Nevertheless, Juan Elcana piloted the Victoria back to Spain, a little less than the years after beginning the momentous journey.


Key events during the life of Ferdinand Magellan

Year Event
1480 Born to a noble family in Portugal.
1505 Traveled with Francisco de Almeida to the far East.
1509 Participated in the Battle of Diu
1513 Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean.
1514 Accused of trading illegally with the Moors and relieved for service for Portugal.
1515 Presented plan to sail beyond the New World to reach East Asia to the King of Portugal, but was rejected.
1517 Gained audience with Charles 5 of Spain and presented his plan with some success.
1519 Five ships and a crew of over 250 men were commisioned for the journey.
1520 Reached Rio de la Plata in South America in January, 1520.
1520 Passed the Magellan Straights in November, 1520.
1521 Reached the Island of Guam in March, with over 150 crewmen still alive.
1521 Death of Magellan in the Philippines in April, after being shot with poison arrows.
1521 Remainder of Magellan's crew reach the Spice Islands in November.
1522 The Victoria, under command of Juan Elcano rounds the Cape of Good Hope in May.
1522 The Victoria returns safely to Spain, on September 6.

Book Links
Ferdinand Magellan  by  Frederick Ober

 

Story LinksBook Links
Other Great Explorers  in  American History Stories—Volume I  by  Pratt
Magellan's Great Plan  in  Discovery of New Worlds  by  Synge
Magellan Sails Round the World  in  Book of Discovery  by  Synge
Ferdinand Magellan Leads First Voyage Round World  in  European Hero Stories  by  Tappan

Image Links
Ferdinand Magellan  in Ferdinand Magellan The ships of Magellan  in Ferdinand Magellan Monument to Magellan on the spot where he was killed  in Ferdinand Magellan
Magellan planting the cross in the Philippine Islands  in Builders of our Country Vol. I Ferdinand Magellan  in Builders of our Country Vol. I Ferdinand Magellan, the first circumnavigator of the world  in Book of Discovery
Magellan  in European Hero Stories Magellan leaving home in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan Magellan wounded. in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan
An attempt to assassinate Magellan in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan The Giant and the mirror in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan Meeting with the Natives. in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan
The baptism of the kings. in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan The Death of Magellan in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan The Reception at Borneo in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan


Contemporary Short Biography
Francisco de Almeida Distinguished himself in the wars against Granada, and was appointed first governor of Portuguese India.
Alfonso de Albuquerque Naval officer who helped establish a Portuguese colony in India at Goa.
Juan Elcano Took command of Magellan's expedition after his death, and completed the journey to Spain.
Vasco da Gama Sailed from Europe to the Orient by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor. Ruled Hapsburg Austria, the Low Countries, Spain and parts of Italy.
Manuel I of Portugal King of Portugal during the era of discovery of the Far East Trade.